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Title:
VESTNIK 2(18) 2019
Number:
2
Year:
2019
Date publication on the site:
2019-07-24 13:15:26
Full journal in PDF:
STUDYING OF AGROBIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF DERZHAVIN SORGHUM WHEN CULTIVATING ON LIGHT BROWN SOILS OF THE NORTH PRE-CASPIAN
UDC: 631.617
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Galina K. Bulakhtina; Aleksander V. Kudryashov; Natalya I. Kudryashova Kudryashova;
Introduction. Currently, the provision of animals grazing on the natural Pre-Caspian pastures with high-grade feed is very low, it is, on average, from 10 to 41 %. The purpose of the research is to study the economically valuable traits and properties of the forage plant of Derzhavin sorghum for the reclamation of degraded pasture ecosystems and the creation of intensive high-nutrient hayfields in the soil and climatic conditions of the North Pre-Caspian. Materials and methods. The experiment studied two varieties of perennial Derzhavin sorghum – Travinka and Karavan, which were grown with different density of planting: 10 thousand, 20 thousand and 40 thousand plants per hectare, on irrigation and on dry farming. Natural pasture is a control. To carry out carried out in the State Agrochemical Service Centre “Astrakhansky”, Astrakhan. Results, discussion: The best indicators of green mass yields were observed in the variety Travinka on a variant of 40 thousand plants per hectare, on irrigation – 41.6 t/ha, on dry farming – 7.9 t/ha; in the variety of Karavan – at a density of planting of 20 thousand plants per hectare, on irrigation – 24.8 t/ha, on dry farming – 3.9 t/ha. From 1 hectare of forage lands of Derzhavin sorghum can be obtained on irrigation – 2.2–8.5, on dry farming – 0.4–2.5 t of fodder units. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that in comparison with the herbage of the natural pasture, sorghum is a more nutritious forage plant by 0.24 feed units per 1 kg. Conclusion. In semi-desert conditions on light chestnut soils Derzhavin sorghum can be used in the restoration of degraded pastures and to create irrigated intensive hayfields, which will lead to ecological restoration, increase productivity and nutritional value of forage.
MORPHOMETRIC SEED PARAMETERS OF COMMERCIAL BATCHES OF VARIOUS DILL VARIETIES
UDC: 581.16:581.48
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Aleksander F. Bukharov; Dmitry N. Baleev; Maria I. Ivanova; Almira R. Bukharova; Olga A. Derevenskikh;
The group of dill varieties revealed significant differences in the degree of manifestation of the main morphometric fruit parameters, including the length of seed, endosperm and germ. In seed length, the two varieties Superdukat OE and Kibray were at the level of the standard or slightly inferior to it. The remaining varieties significantly exceeded the standard for this indicator. The largest seeds (5.01 ± 0.09 mm) were found in the Lesnogorodsky variety. Similarly, in the studied varieties, the length of the endosperm varied from 2.85±0.05 mm in the Kibray variety to 4.10 ± 0.08 mm in the Lesnogorodsky variety, with an average of 3.15 ± 0.07 mm in the standard — the Kentavr variety. At the same time, the Tetra, Zelenaya Alleya, Aromatny and Lesnogorodsky varieties provided a significant excess compared to the standard at the 5% level of significance. Germ length in only two varieties (Tetra and Lesnogorodsky) was significantly higher than the control. The remaining samples for this indicator were at the level of control. The identification and study of the causes of significant heterogeneity of seeds in linear dimensions deserves further study. Of particular interest is the selection of the share of influence of hereditary and non-hereditary factors in the formation of these characteristics, and, therefore, the statement of the problem of the possibility of improving the quality of seeds by selection or technological methods is of interest too.
INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS’ APPLICATION ON THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF BLUE HONEYSUCKLE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL
UDC: 582.973:470.54
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Vladimir P. Golovunin; Sergey A. Zamyatin;
In the modern period of total chemicalization of all spheres of our life, the issue of obtaining organic products is of concern not only to large agricultural producers, but above all to amateur gardeners. Recently, the question of the so-called agricultural biologization, the reduction of the use of agrochemicals and their replacement with biologics and plant protection products has been raised. One of the possible topical solutions to this problem is the use of alternative plant nutrition sources: biologics based on highly effective bacterial strains, which promote the transfer of hard-to-reach nutrients into easily digestible ones, as well as non-symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in the soil. Therefore, products produced with the use of biologics are organic, enriched with vitamins and microelements, contains more protein, and the content of nitrates in it is reduced by 2–2.5 times. The aim of the research is to study the effect of microbiological nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers on the growth and development of blue honeysuckle plants on sod-podzolic soils of the Republic of Mari El. The objectives of the research are to determine the general condition of blue honeysuckle plants (according to the average annual growth), as well as to determine the content of total nitrogen and phosphorus in honeysuckle leaves, depending on the type of fertilizer. Fertilization in spring in the initial period of honeysuckle plant growth has a positive effect on their further growth and development. In particular, the average annual growth rate increases from 27 to 60 cm. According to this indicator, the variant of azotovit + phosphatovit was distinguished, where the value of the average annual growth varied from 40 to 60 cm. This drug leads to an increase in the content of total nitrogen and phosphorus in the leaves and indicates the optimal availability of plants with these nutrients. The greatest increase was obtained in the variant of azotovit + phosphatovit (total nitrogen +0.43–0.82 %, phosphorus +0.24–0.28 %).
EVALUATION OF APPLICATION EFFICIENCY OF HUMIC CONCENTRATE DAR IN POTATO CULTIVATION
UDC: 631.8542
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Sergey A. Zamyatin; Raisia B. Maksimova; Elena Yu. Udalova;
Recently, in crop production, more and more attention has been paid to the use of such drugs as plant growth regulators. They perform important functions in the process of plant life. One of these regulators and plant growth stimulants are humic preparations. Humates are a group of natural high-molecular substances, which, due to their structural features and physico-chemical properties, are characterized by high physiological activity. The range of application of humates is extremely wide and includes almost all crops produced as at large agricultural enterprises and in private farms. The article presents the application efficiency of humic concentrate Dar from peat extract in potato cultivation. The aim of the research is to assess the effect of humic preparation Dar on the economic and biological characteristics of potatoes and to identify its effectiveness depending on the treatment options. The experimental part of the work was conducted on the stationary part of the experimental field of the Mari branch of the FARC of the North- East in 2018. The repeatability of the experiment is 4 times, the experience is based on the method of split plots. As a test culture, Bellarosa potato variety was used. Studies have shown that the use of humic drug Dar has a positive effect on the growth processes and quality of potato tubers. In all experimental variants the primary manifestation of late blight and alternaria infections were observed in later periods, compared to control. The highest yield of potatoes was obtained by trating tubers and spraying plants on vegetation period with humic concentrate, which amounted to 24.5 t/ha. The dry matter content in potato tubers when using humic concentrate increased by 8,4 % compared with the control variant. In general, the results confirm the value of humic concentrate Dar. The use of such fertilizer enriches the soil with essential nutrients, increasing the yield and quality of potatoes.
INCREASE OF APIARY PROFITABILITY BY BEE VENOM COLLECTING AND USE OF SILVER WATER
UDC: 638.8
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Boris F. Lavrentiev;
The experience of domestic and foreign beekeeping shows that increasing profitability and obtaining sufficient profit in beekeeping is possible only if there are strong bee families and the apiaries are provided with highly efficient devices for diagnosing the state of bees at various stages of their development; systems for collecting bee venom and devices for obtaining "silver water" for feeding bees, disinfecting beehives and fighting the major bee diseases. Particular attention should be paid to obtaining bee venom, which is used in many medicinal products, but practically not produced in our country, and has a high cost. The main purpose of this work is to develop proposals for the use of systems and devices created at the Volga State University of Technology (VSUT) to obtain bee venom and silver water in order to increase the profitability of the apiary of the VSUT training and experimental forestry, as well as to create technical documentation for the developed devices for their serial production at the enterprises of the Republic of Mari El. A block diagram of the Muksh 7 bee venom collection system, its technical characteristics, design, application methodology, and economic calculations of profits from the use of the Muksh 7 bee venom collection system in the forestry apiary are given. Separate sections of the article provide information about the Erviy 2 and Erviy 3 silver water obtaining devices, their technical characteristics, design, application method and economic calculations of profits from using silver water for feeding and treating bees, and disinfecting hives. Economic calculations have shown that by collecting bee venom and using silver water at the apiary of the VSTU training and experimental forestry, it is possible to receive an additional 350 thousand rubles of profit per year, which will reduce the cost of honey and significantly increase the profitability of the apiary. In addition, a training and research center for beekeepers of the Republic of Mari El, neighboring regions and neighboring countries can be organized on the basis of the apiary of the training experimental forestry. Considering that there are approximately 35 thousand bee colonies in the territory of the Republic of Mari El, in a year in all apiaries you can get up to 70 kg of bee venom with a total value of more than 100 million rubles. The total profit in the Republic due to the collection of bee venom and the use of silver water can exceed 100–120 million rubles. This work is carried out within the framework of the May decrees of the President of the Russian Federation and his December message to the State Assembly on import substitution and increasing profitability of the national economy.
FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT OF HOP VARIETIES OF DIFFERENT RIPENING TERMS
UDC: 633.791:551.59
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Valentina V. Leontieva;
The article presents the results of monitoring the growth and development of three hop varieties of different groups of ripeness in the climatic conditions of the growing season over the years. One of the problems arising in hop cultivation in the Chuvash Republic is a short vegetation period. When carrying out autumn work on the hop fields and harvesting, to avoid the threat of getting the grown crop under the early frost, in the hop farms it is necessary to cultivate hop varieties of different ripening terms, taking into account the weather conditions of the year. Under favorable soil and climatic conditions, the stems grow up to 7–8 m during the vegetation period. The intensive development of hop plants occurs in the first half of the growing season, favorable weather conditions of which give rise to a big harvest of good quality. Among the studied varieties in 2017, the middle-ripe variety Krylatsky was the first to start growing. Early varieties lagged behind in development for 7–10 days, even taking into account the early pruning of the main rhizomes. With the onset of favorable weather conditions, the varieties leveled in the development in accordance with the varietal characteristics. In 2016 and 2018, the growth and development of hop plants was in accordance with the norm. The period of flowering and cone formation of these years took place in drought conditions; as a result, maturation occurred earlier by 5–7 days. By harvesting all varieties have realized their potential for productivity and quality. Knowing the response of different hop varieties to weather conditions, you can plan the timing of individual operations during the growing season.
THE RESULTS OF THE ECOLOGICAL TEST OF NEW VARIETIES OF WINTER RYE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL
UDC: 633.1
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Vladimir A. Maksimov; Rimma I. Zolotareva;
Winter crops in the Non-Chernozem Region are able to provide more stable grain production. Due to the effective use of autumn-winter precipitation, winter grains are able to withstand drought, especially at the beginning of the growing season. According to the available numerous experimental data obtained in various scientific institutions, winter grains use mineral fertilizers very effectively, providing a high payback of grain. One of the most significant factors in increasing the yield and quality of grain is a balanced supply of plants with elements of mineral nutrition, especially nitrogen. The purpose of the field experiment was to study the adaptability of new and promising for the conditions of the Republic of Mari El varieties of winter rye. In the conditions of 2015–2018, of the four studied varieties of winter rye, the control variety Tatyana significantly exceeded the variety Rada by 0.77 t/ha in grain productivity. Presowing application of azophoska in the dose of N24P24K24 for cultivation, contributed to an increase in productivity for all varieties on average by 0.65 t/ha, or 15.2 %. The application of nitrogen fertilizing regardless of the variety and the main application of mineral fertilizers, significantly increased grain productivity in the N45 variant by 0.74 t/ha and in the N45+N15 variant by 1.21 t/ha compared to the background without nitrogen fertilizing. The highest content of crude protein in the grain of winter rye showed varieties Moskovskaya 15 (13.99 %) and Yantarnaya (13.79 %) on the version with nitrogen fertilizing of N45 + N15 on the background with the introduction of azophoska. According to the starch content among winter rye varieties, the pre-sowing application of azophoska at a dose of N24P24K24 significantly increases the starch content in grain of Tatyana and Yantarnaya varieties. With the introduction of nitrogen fertilizing
EFFECT OF FEED ADDITIVES ON THE QUALITY OF BROILER CHICKEN ADIPOSE TISSUE
UDC: 637.5.04/07
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Ellada K. Papunidi; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Galina S. Stepanova; Leysan V. Abdullina;
Poultry industry belongs to one of the branches of the agro-industrial complex, which has a narrow specialization, and is a comprehensive integrated system that combines all the processes from poultry farming to the production of finished products and its implementation. A full and balanced feeding largely determines the development of poultry industry, which, of course, is one of the main factors, as it affects directly the productivity and preservation of poultry health, ensuring the efficient production of eggs and meat [4]. In order to ensure the efficiency of poultry egg and meat productivity, it is important, along with the maximum set of necessary nutrients,to carefully balance the mixed feed nutrient content at the optimal ratio of metabolic energy and crude protein, amino acids, macro-and microelements, vitamins and other biologically active substances. Nutrient-balanced feed improves the nutrient utilization of feed and its digestibility. Balanced fodder mixtures should form the basis of feeding for poultry, they should be compiled in accordance with current norms of feeding rations, taking into account the type, direction of productivity, purpose, sex and age of poultry. The birds of modern crosses, are highly productive, but more sensitive to stress, and low immunocompetence often provokes the occurrence of diseases, and it is the quality of feed and nutrient balance that play a decisive role. When developing modern technological methods of poultry growing and feeding, it is necessary to take into account the use of biologically active supplements, which makes it possible to obtain environmentally safe and high-quality products [7]. It is necessary to conduct a constant search and testing of new cheap and environmentally friendly dietary supplements, since it is an urgent and important task that can greatly improve the efficiency of poultry farming. It is the use of dietary supplements in the composition of feed mixtures that in many respects will allow to increase the productivity of poultry, as well as to reduce the cost of feed for the production of poultry products. Biologically active supplements, when introduced into the diet of poultry, cause the stimulation of hen productivity, positively affect the health of the poultry, and, as a result, increase the quality of poultry production. It has been repeatedly noted that the use of dietary supplements for feeding poultry contributes to the normalization of metabolic processes in the body, improves the absorption of feed nutrients, which positively affects the increase in growth and quality indicators of slaughter products. Recently, the quality of poultry meat and its ecological purity have become increasingly important. And one of the effective, accessible and safe for animals and birds substances is organic acids: fumaric, citric, succinic and many others [6].
ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE USE OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS
UDC: 637.5.04/07
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Ellada K. Papunidi; Aigul Z. Karimova; Albina V. Potapova; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
The sphere of industrial poultry farming is one of the most highly efficient and precocious branches of animal husbandry. This production niche is characterized by rapid rate of reproduction of livestock, maksimally high productivity, minimum costs of human labor and material resources to receive a unit of output, while the demand for poultry meat and eggs in the world is constantly and rapidly growing [5]. The economic efficiency of poultry farming is determined by a system of indicators, the most important of which are bird productivity, its average daily liveweight gain, as well as egg production. It is noted that recently there has been a tendency in industrial poultry farming to increase labor costs and feed consumption per unit of production, which may adversely affect profitability. The dynamics of the increase in feed consumption per unit of production is largely due to the fact that feed rations are often unbalanced in nutrients. The consequence of unbalanced nutrition is poultry body dysfunction. In case of violation of the basic vital functions the protective systems of the bird’s body decrease, while it cannot adequately respond to the adverse effects of the environment, which dramatically increases the risk of many diseases. Therefore, the most reasonable and acceptable way to solve the problem under discussion is the creation and widespread use of dietary supplements in the daily practice of feeding poultry. For the effective poultry industry management at the present stage, it is necessary to ensure the rational use of the existing food supply. In the preparation and balancing of poultry diets, it is necessary to focus on increasing the conversion of feed nutrients into poultry products. It is necessary to take into account all the needs of bird organism, and above all by increasing the biological value of feeding. Numerous studies have confirmed and proved that it is almost impossible to achieve the desired result with the help of conventional feed, they can not provide the chickens with the necessary energy, and it is possible to increase their nutritional value by introducing dietary supplements into their composition [8]. To maximize productivity and reduce production costs, it is necessary to be guided by the main tasks facing producers of livestock raw materials in modern conditions and to achieve these results. In order to fully realize the genetic potential of modern breeds and crosses of birds and animals by creating certain external conditions and restructuring individual systems of the body, it is necessary to maximize their productivity. And one of the effective ways to cause changes in the living body in the right and useful direction is the use of new types of feed products, nutrients and biologically active substances, the use of chemical elements, antioxidants, probiotics, micro-additives, including vitamins.
MYCOLOGICAL STATISTICS OF FEED CONTAMINATION IN SERTAIN AREAS OF THE VOLGA REGION
UDC: 582.4/28:636.085/087
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Ramziya M. Potekhina; Eduard I. Semenov; Liliya E. Matrosova; Konstantin Kh. Papunidi;
Feed contamination with mycotoxins – toxigenic metabolites of mold fungi is a serious problem for animal husbandry. Whith the consumption of such feed, poisoning occurs – mycotoxicosis, which causes a decrease in productivity, resistance to infectious diseases and death of farm animals and birds. The article presents the results of mycological analysis of agricultural products received for studies in the Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety from some areas of the Volga region. The studies were conducted in the period from July to September of 2017–2018. Samples from the Republics of Tatarstan (Aksubaevsky, Vysokogorsky, Kukmorsky, Chistopolsky areas), Mari El (Zvenigovsky, Volzhsky, Morkinsky areas), Bashkortostan (Karaidelsky and Sterlitamaksky areas) were studied. Mycological studies included: determination of the total fungi number (TFN), generic fungi identification, determination of toxicity of isolates and the detection of dangerous species of microscopic fungi Stachybotrys alternans and Dendrodochium toxicum. The determination of TFN was carried out by serial dilutions method. Microscopic fungi were identified by identification keys and atlases. The toxicity of the isolates was determined by biotesting on Paramaecium caudatum. In the Volga region a wide spread of fungi of the genus Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma was revealed. Non-toxigenic isolates of the genus Aspergillus, Mucor, Penicillium dominated in feed samples of the Republics of Tatarstan and Mari El as well as Sterlitamak region of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The samples of forages in the Republic of Bashkortostan were dominated by fungi of the genus Fusarium. Isolates of the genus Fusarium showed high toxigenic potential – isolates produced deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin. These results suggest a high risk of fusariotoxin damage during harvesting and the need for additional analysis before storing in the autumn. Toxigenic isolates and propagules of dangerous species Stachybotrys alternans and Dendrodochium toxicum were not identified in the feed. TFN did not exceed MPC (5,0 × 104), which indicates the absence of mold. Systematic monitoring of micromycetes will allow timely implementation of preventive measures for mycotoxicosis of animals.
FITOMETRIC INDEX AND YIELD OF POTATOES DEPENDING ON FUNGICIDES USED
UDC: 635.21
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Elena Yu. Udalova;
Under field conditions, the effect of using biological and chemical substances that can stimulate the growth and development of cultivated plants and increase their resistance to unfavorable environmental factors was evaluated. In our research, we studied the possibility of optimizing the biological and chemical protection of fungicides and the timing of their use for preplant treatment of tubers and plant processing during the growing season for yield and quality of potatoes. In the process, it was established that preplant treatment of potato seed tubers and triple application of fungicides for the growing season had a significant impact on the emergence of potato seedlings, increased the number of main stems by one bush, which made it possible to get healthy, without damage to potato tubers. Preplant treatment of seed tubers had a significant impact on the emergence of seedlings of potato plants. In the variant, where potato tubers were treated with Selest Top insectofungicide, field germination increased by 1.0 % in Bellaroza variety and by 1.2 % in Gala variety, compared with the control variant. The highest yield of potato tubers of 174 c / ha, was obtained in variant no. 2 with preplant tuber treatment with Selest Top drug and triple chemical treatment of plants with fungicides (Metaxil – 2.5 kg/ha, Ridomil – 2.5 kg/ha, Ordan – 2.5 kg/ha) during the growing season. When growing potatoes of Gala variety on variant no.2, the potato crop was formed at the level of 164 C/ha, or 14.6 % more than the control variant. Preplant treatment of tubers and plant processing was an indispensable element of potato cultivation technology, because the productivity of this crop can be reduced by 1.5–2 times when growing without protective measures.
CYTOMORPHOLOGY STUDY OF RAT LIVER UNDER y-IRRADIATION
UDC: 576.3:616.36:599.323.4:54-78
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Anastasia I. Yakovleva; Marina M. Salnikova; Vadim R. Saitov; Gulnaz Sh. Zakirova;
Studies of the effects of toxicants of different nature on the organisms at the ultrastructural level make it possible to find out the subtle mechanisms of the occurrence of certain damage to biological systems. The liver is a suitable object for such study, because it is of interest as a normal model with weakly proliferating cells that are able to accumulate latent damage. Radiation-induced changes in living systems motivate scientists to research because of their uniqueness: γ-radiation has a wide spectrum of action, exerting various and, sometimes, ambiguous, effects on cells and organisms in general. The purpose of the study was to identify changes in rat liver cells after exposure to ionizing radiation at a dose of 5 Gy using light and electron microscopy methods, as well as measuring and processing some morphometric parameters (area of hepatocytes and their nuclei, mitochondria, number of hepatocytes and binuclear cells per unit area). The results of the experiment indicate the presence of significant transformations in the structure of the liver parenchyma: a violation of the typical structure of the plates of hepatocytes, a strong narrowing of the hepatic sinusoids, cell deformation. At the ultrathin level, fragmentation and redistribution of chromatin, and EPR dystrophy are recorded. On the 40th day after γ-irradiation the activation of protective processes in the liver of rats was observed at the cellular and subcellular levels – an increase in the proportion of binuclear and dark hepatocytes, hyperplasia of peroxisomes, and induration of the mitochondrial matrix. The enhancement of proliferative activity in the liver of rats exposed to a single ionizing radiation dose of 5 Gy was not confirmed on the 40th day after irradiation.
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARD (IFRS) 16 “LEASES”
UDC: 657.1
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Dmitry B. Bortsov;
Today, business is increasingly understood not only as an operating activity to extract profit from the main specialization, but also as a complex set of different processes that are aimed at the most efficient operation of the company. Leasing for many companies is a means to improve their own productivity, a way of doing business, allowing you to use the available resources with the greatest benefit for the business. In order to consolidate the rules of present-day reflection of lease transactions in the IFRS reporting and to standardize the relations between lessees and lessors in any international market, a new approach to lease accounting, enshrined in the IFRS 16 [1] was developed. The main objective of the new provision, like many other international standards, is to form the most transparent and adequate disclosure of assets and liabilities of the balance sheet, which is achieved by reflecting on the balance of leased assets constantly participating in the entity’s business. In this regard the new standard can cause a number of problems for the companies it affects, as it makes huge changes in lessee accounting. Thus, for example, according to IFRS 16 even the concept of lease has changed: now it is necessary to define whether the asset is identified and whether the right to control its use passes to the lessee under lease agreement that was not in old rules. As a rule, the majority of new IFRS, when first applied, require from the reporting companies their retrospective application and recalculation of comparative data of previous periods in accordance with the requirements of the new standards. However this document contains a number of exceptions and simplifications of practical character which can facilitate transition to a new order of accounting to reporting companies. This article will address these issues, the implications of the transition, and ways to mitigate the transition to IFRS 16.
USE OF ENERGY STORAGE DEVICES AS POWER DEMAND MANAGEMENT TOOLS
UDC: 332.1+338.4
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Anatoly P. Dzyuba;
One of the modern directions of introducing technological innovations in the field of power saving and power efficiency is the development of power storage technologies, which are used as power demand management tools. The purpose of this work is to study the possibilities of using industrial power storage devices as demand management tools at industrial enterprises in Russia. The article provides an analysis of domestic and foreign research in the field of application of power storage devices, as well as models of power demand management. In the process of research methods of synthesis, analysis, and modeling were used. The author analyzes the various configurations of power demand management with the identification of management configuration, within the framework of which it is most expedient to use industrial power storage devices. The article provides an analysis of an example of industrial storage connection to power supply system of an industrial enterprise, identifies the features and limitations associated with demand management based on industrial power storage. The results of the research are the development of an algorithm for power storage system management, developed on the basis of the identified features and limitations, which is divided into two basic blocks: “accumulator charging mode” and “power supply mode”, which must be carried out under certain external and internal conditions. Under the external conditions of operation of energy storage devices, the article accepts the conditions for the purchase of electricity from the wholesale or retail electricity market in different periods of the day. Under internal conditions, the peculiarities of changing the configuration of electricity demand schedule by an industrial enterprise are taken. The article concludes with the formulas developed by the author for estimating the economic effect of using an industrial electric power storage device as a demand management tool, making calculations on the basis of which it is possible to assess the economic feasibility of using industrial storage devices as a demand management tool in both short-term and long-term periods.
DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP ADVANTAGES AS A TOOL FOR ENSURING THE BUDGETARY SUSTAINABILITY OF THE SUBJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
UDC: 336.1
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Marina V. Kazakovtseva;
Introduction. The use of public-private partnership mechanism makes it possible to use an optimum combination of public and private resources for the solution of key problems of social and economic development of the Russian Federation. International experience shows that development of public-private partnership tools contributes to the growth of investment in infrastructure projects. In this work the features and shortcomings of the regulatory framework of public-private partnership of the Russian Federation are considered. Research objective is the analysis of current state of public-private partnership in Russia and the prospects of its further development. Materials and methods. The work highlights the difficulties in implementing public infrastructure projects that can eliminate the use of public-private partnership scheme. In Russia, despite the relatively recent beginning of this mechanism use, the public-private partnership sector is dynamically developing and also contains examples of successful projects in all key fields of the Russian economy. One of the factors hindering the development of public-private partnership in Russia is the imperfection of the regulatory framework in this sphere. As a result, a form of public-private cooperation, such as a concession agreement, which has a number of legislative advantages over public-private partnership, is more developed in Russia. The existing regulatory certain market approaches to risk sharing between project participants. Results of a research, discussion. Attracting investors to state infrastructure projects requires further studying of the advantages provided by the use of public-private partnership scheme and the improvement of the legislative framework for regulating this sphere. Conclusion. Further development of the regulatory framework of public-private partnership in the Russian Federation will create favorable conditions for attracting investors to the implementation of socially important infrastructure projects.
PERSPECTIVE DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SERVICES SECTOR OF THE AGROINDUSTRIAL COMPLEX
UDC: 338:631
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin;
Introduction. The agro-industrial complex in modern conditions develops along the path of diversification of the services related to the production process. The formation of the consumer food market contributes to the increasing requirements for the quality of goods and services, the involvement of highly qualified specialists in various activities, and the intensification of the introduction of advanced technologies in the production and management cycle. The subject of the article is the services of agro-industrial complex as a type of socio-economic activity. The topic of the article is related to the actual problems of development of the sphere of production services in agriculture, which represent growth potential of regional markets. Objective: to analyze the state of the agro-industrial complex of the country and identify promising areas for the development of related services. Materials and methods: system, formal-logical, modeling of socio-economic processes, analysis of statistical data. The results of the study, discussion: the agro-industrial complex of the country is developing in the context of multidirectional trends, experiencing the impact of negative macroeconomic background and growing consumer demands for the quality of raw materials and food. The services of the agro-industrial complex have an impact on the growth of production, quality improvement, the formation of related economic activities. The sphere under consideration is the potential for the development of the regional economy, involving in the distribution processes territories with agricultural specialization, improving the quality of life of the population of small towns and municipalities. Conclusion: the services of the agro-industrial complex are a promising direction for the development of socioeconomic indicators of the economy of the regions, have a positive impact on production and employment.
PREREQUISITES FOR PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS INFRASTRUCTURE OF THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL
UDC: 338.24, 338.1
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Yana Yu. Pavlova; Agniya S. Golovina;
Introduction. The world is developing a large number of projects implemented in various infrastructure industries using private funds, such as project finance instruments, project finance with public leverage, public-private partnerships, concession and quasi-concession forms. These infrastructure projects effectively manage and maintain the created objects. The transport and logistics infrastructure is the most capital-intensive, but at the same time it’s a link between the production and mining infrastructure and the social service infrastructure in the field of health care, education, housing and utilities, and the defense industry. Qualitative analytics is needed on the number and volume of invested objects through various tools, including PPP. Purpose. To consider the level of public-private partnership development in the Republic of Mari El and the quality of factors affecting it. Materials and methods. The data of the National Center for Public-Private Partnership, the World Bank, the ROSINFA Infrastructure Projects Support Platform, the official Internet portal of the Government of the Republic of Mari El, the National Rating Agency, the data of the Federal State Statistics Service of the RME were used in writing the article. Research results, discussions. The paper describes the legislative and organizational features of PPP management in the Russian Federation and the Republic of Mari El, disadvantages of PPP introduction to Russian practice, the dynamics of the logistics efficiency index in the Russian Federation, using the indicator of the level of PPP development in constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The dynamics of the level of PPP development for 2014-2017 and the dynamics of investments in fixed assets for 2014–2018 in the Republic of Mari El are described. The rating of the regional innovation index of the republic is given and the indicators affecting this index are analyzed. Conclusion. In the Republic of Mari El, the development of PPP occurs at a low speed, lagging behind all the regions of the Volga Federal District, low investment attractiveness and innovative development of the region, a weak socio-economic position of the republic, an increase in public debt and a constant budget deficit are noted.