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VESTNIK 1 (25) 2021
Date publication on the site:
2021-04-27 08:51:19
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UDC: 6.33.11:631.86:631.559
Authors: Mikhail I. Andreev ; Ольга Геннадьевна Maryina-Chermnykh;
Introduction. The qualitative state of soils in agriculture depends on a number of factors, both natural, related to the peculiarities of soil formation, and anthropogenic, determined by the cultivation of agricultural crops and their productivity, the method of processing, the amount and composition of pesticides and fertilizers used (organic and mineral). At the same time, it is organic fertilizers that are considered the driving factor for the sustainable development of ecologically balanced landscape-adaptive farming systems. The introduction of organic fertilizer into the soil allows us to form a high-quality crop yield, improve the physical, physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil, which is an important basis for the replenishment and reproduction of humus in soils, determining their potential and actual fertility, contributing to the preservation of useful microorganisms, creating comfortable conditions for their activities. Objective: to study the effectiveness of applying liquid pig manure, pea mulch and Biocomposite-correct biopreparation on the yield of winter wheat. Materials and methods. The object of the study is winter wheat, organic fertilizer in the form of liquid pig manure, straw pea mulch and biopreparation Biocomposite-correct, the research was carried out by field experiments and laboratory analyses. The results of the discussion. The studies were conducted on the crops of winter wheat variety Moskovskaya 56 in the Republic of Mari El on sod-podzolic soils, where liquid pig manure was introduced into the soil without mulch and with mulch as an organic fertilizer at a dose of 20 t/ha, a biological preparation Biocomposite-correct at a dose of 2 l/ha and tank mixture of liquid pig manure and biopreparation. As a result of the research, it was revealed that, on average, for 3 years of research, the yield of winter wheat on the experimental variants ranged within 4,26...5,77 t/ha. The yield of winter wheat was determined and increased in the variants with soil mulching with straw, applying organic fertilizer and biological preparation, where it increased by 1,1...1,3 times. Conclusion. Mulching the soil with pea straw and the joint application of organic fertilizer in the form of liquid pig manure and Biocomposite-correct biological preparation provided an increase in the yield of winter wheat in all years of research.
UDC: 635.21:632.2
Authors: Nina N. Apaeva ; Lyubov V. Kudryashova ;
Introduction. Currently most of the potatoes are grown in the private sector, where the cultivation technology is violated, crop rotation is not respected, and protective measures are not sufficiently taken. This leads to a deterioration of the phytosanitary state of crops and decrease of potato tubers yields and quality. Violation of zonal technological regulations for potato cultivation resulted in a rapid increase in disease harmfulness. One of the most dangerous potato diseases is late blight. Currently, the drug market offers more than twenty types of drugs, but practice shows that not all drugs effectively protect potatoes from late blight. The aim of the research is to establish the effectiveness of fungicides against potato late blight. Materials and methods. Experiment scheme: 1) control (without spraying); 2) Ridomil Gold MC, WDG (2.5 kg/ha); 3) Profit Gold, WDG (0.6 kg/ha); 4) Ordan, WP (2.0 kg/ha). It was microplot experiment in 4 replicates. The potato variety Gala was used in the experiment. Fungicide spraying was performed by backpack sprayer on windless evenings. Research and discussion results. The least spread of potato late blight was in the variant with Ridomil Gold. Compared with the control, the prevalence of late blight decreased by 4 times in the first registration and by 5 times in the second registration. The biological efficiency of Ridomil Gold MC was 85 %, of Profit Gold was 78 %, and of Ordan was 49 %. In the variant with Ridomil Gold MC, potato yield increased by 5.4 t/ha compared to the control. The highest profitability of potato production was obtained in the variant with Ridomil Gold MC fungicide spraying. Conclusions. Fungicides have different efficiency against potato late blight. The best result was obtained from Radomil Gold MC fungicide.
UDC: 159.9.07; 664.78
Authors: Anna T. Vasyukova; Svetlana V. Egorova; Vladimir G. Kulakov; Sergei I. Okhotnikov;
Abstract. The article is devoted to the use of nosode complex – a natural oncoimmunoprotector as a food additive introduced into the formulation of flour mixture from cereal flakes in order to increase their nutritional value and functionality. Based on the study of different combinations of this homeopathic complex with a flour mixture, an innovative product was obtained that has such useful factors for the body as prevention of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diseases of the nervous system, activation of the immune system; increasing the body's resistance to various viral and bacterial diseases. Optimal combinations of cereals from grain crops were established and dosages of nosodes in mixtures were recommended, taking into account the therapeutic effect. The purpose of the research is to substantiate the introduction of a functional ingredient – nosodes - into model products from a mixture of grain crops for the formation of new functional properties of traditionally used products; to study the effect of the components of the formulation of a mixture of cereal flakes and administered doses of nosodes on the organoleptic, physicochemical parameters, nutritional and energy value of cereals prepared from experimental models. Objectives of the study: formulation of prototype mixtures of cereals (rice, oat, buckwheat), justification of the dose and the method of introducing nosodes into prepared mixtures taking into account therapeutic effect, development of technology for the production of semi-finished products from mixtures of cereal crops. Objects of research: cereals, such as rice, oats, buckwheat, nosodes, sugar. Their optimal combination in semi-finished products and the dose of nosodes to give a therapeutic effect to the finished product is proposed. Research methods: determination of organoleptic, physicochemical parameters, food and energy value of cereals prepared from experimental models was carried out according to generally accepted methods (GOST 15113.0-77 Food concentrates). Rules for acceptance, sampling and preparation of samples (with Amendments No. 1, 2); GOST 15113.3-77 Food concentrates. Methods for determining organoleptic parameters, readiness of concentrates for use and assessing the dispersion of the suspension (with Amendment No. 1); GOST 15113.4-77 Food concentrates. Methods for determining moisture (with Amendment No. 1). Research results, discussion. As a result of the conducted research, a qualitatively new semi-finished food product from a mixture of grain crops was developed and tested. It is combined with water and milk in the cooking process, which takes only 5 minutes to prepare. Received. A new semi-finished food product has been obtained, which, in terms of its organoleptic, physical and chemical parameters, nutritional and energy value, is not inferior to its traditionally prepared analogues, but surpasses them in terms of nutritional and energy value. Conclusions. Based on the research, the pilot model No. 1 is recommended for implementation.
UDC: 619:616.61:616.155.194
Authors: Olga A. Gracheva; Dina M. Mukhutdinova; Damir R. Amirov; Alexandra S. Yakovleva;
Abstract. Renal anemia is one of the many complications of renal parenchyma destruction, which significantly reduces the quality of life of animals, in addition, it is one of the factors that worsen the disease prognosis. Renal anemia usually develops in patients with severe structural changes in the renal parenchyma and is directly related primarily to erythropoietin deficiency. In the vast majority of cases, the nosological form of nephropathy that led to this type of anemia is chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the severity of this complication depends on the variability of the renal parenchyma lesion, as well as on other features of the course of CKD in a particular patient. In this regard, the aim of our study was to study the effectiveness of recombinant erythropoietin for the correction of anemic syndrome in CKD. Twenty cats of various breeds were selected for research on the principle of analogues, which were diagnosed with chronic kidney disease during a comprehensive assessment of the condition using clinical, hematological and functional research methods, in addition, these animals had a decrease in the level of red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit, which required correction of the anemic syndrome. Recombinant erythropoietin was administered to 10 animals of the experimental group at a dose of 50 IU/kg 3 times a week against the background of the standard treatment regimen, which included the use of diet therapy, etiotropic, substitution and symptomatic therapy, which was also received by 10 animals of the control group. Treatment and animal studies carried out over 90 days showed that the normalization of the clinical condition of CKD patients and the stabilization of certain parameters of the biochemical status occurred in animals of both groups, but the dynamics was more pronounced in animals of the experimental group. Under the influence of erythropoietin, morphological parameters of blood (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit) in animals of the experimental group reached the normative limits, while in the control group, the lack of correction of this link of pathogenesis led to their decrease, and therefore the general treatment regimen also did not give full therapeutic effectiveness.
UDC: 636.
Authors: Murat B. Kalmagambetov ; Abzal A. Spanov ; Aleidar S. Alentayev; Dastanbek A. Baimukanov ;
Abstract. The research aims to analyze the efficiency of the technology for accelerated determination of preg-nancy in dairy cattle and diagnosis of gynecological diseases, as well as the method of artificial insemination of cows with sexed semen. According to the research results, it was revealed that in all farms, replacement heifers are raised in accordance with the regulatory requirements for the rearing of young stock of dairy breeds. It was found that out of 2061 cows with disordered reproductive functions – 212 animals, or 9.8 % of the total livestock, including inflammation of the uterine mucosa was found in 48 animals, or 2.3 %, follicular cyst – in 45 animals, or 2.2 %, hypo-ovaria – in 110 animals, or in 5.3 %. Among 212 animals with reproductive disorders, 175 heads or 82.5 %, were cured, with inflammation of the uterine mucosa – 84.2 %, with a follicular cyst – 88.9 %, with hypo-ovarian – 79.1 %. The treatment was carried out according to the schemes developed by the authors. Fertility from the first insemination with the use of fertagyl in the farm Aidarbaev E was – 83.3 %, in the group treated with the drug Surfagon – 100 %, in AIC Adal JSC – 75 % and 100 %, respectively, in Agrofirm Dinara-Ranch LLP – 85.7 % and 100 % respectively. The conducted studies have shown that the efficiency of using sexed semen is quite high and the yield of heifers is: 88.9... 92.6 % in AIC Adal JSC, in the farm Aidarbaev E – 90.7... 92.3 %, in Agrofirm Dinara-Ranch LLP – 90.7... 94.4 %.
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Ellada K. Рapunidi; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev ; Albina V. Potapova ; Aigul Z. Karimova ;
Abstract. High-quality and safe products of animal origin are more and more in demand by consumers. The modern approach to organizing the processes of keeping, growing and feeding farm animals and poultry is aimed at obtaining organic products with a minimum content of chemicals that can have a negative effect on the human body. The meat sector of industrial poultry farming provides the main percentage of the population's food basket with meat products and is one of the most priority livestock sectors due to the short-term process of poultry rearing. The high productivity of poultry is largely due to the use of chemicals in the process of growing poultry, the action of which is aimed at increasing live weight and the formation of persistent immunity. As a result, such chemicalization leads to the emergence of a threat of obtaining unsafe products for humans. Organization and implementation of organic animal husbandry will allow for partial replacement of feed antibiotics and hormonal preparations used in poultry farming, thereby unloading products from residual amounts of chemicals. The main goal of organic poultry farming is to balance the feeding of poultry, through natural feed, including through the use of non-traditional feed additives. The study of the use of biologically active additives in poultry feeding, both in traditional and non-traditional ways of keeping poultry requires a systematic approach and deeper study. This article reflects the results of research on the effectiveness of the use of dietary supplements of plant origin and on the basis of succinic and fumaric acids in industrial poultry farming. The issues of the influence of additives on the indicators of poultry productivity have been studied. With the addition of the studied additives to the diet of broiler chickens, an increase in the safety of the livestock and in poultry live weight by an average of 15 % was noted, depending on the type of additive.
UDC: 582.282.123.4:619:616.24:636.2
Authors: Ramziya M. Potekhina; Evgeniya Yu. Tarasova ; Liliya E. Matrosova; Nailya N. Mishina ;
Abstract. Fungi of the genus Aspergillus are aerobic and widespread in nature, found in soil, dust and decaying vegetation. There are over 190 species of the genus Aspergillus; however, few species are involved in opportun-istic infections in humans and animals. Feed and agricultural products contaminated with mold mycelium are dangerous for the health of humans and farm animals. Mycological monitoring of feeds was carried out in the laboratory of mycotoxins of the Federal Center for Toxicological, Radiation and Biological Safety, autopsies of animals were carried out in the farms of the Republic of Mari El, in which respiratory, gastrointestinal diseases and calf mortality were recorded. In autopsy animals, serous-fibrinous inflammation of the lung tissue was noted, with completely filled fibrinous masses containing an abundance of fungal hyphae, the presence of grayish-green films on the mucous membrane of the trachea. Pathological material from young farm animals was examined for the presence of isolates of the genus Aspergillus, swabs from the nasopharynx and tracheal part were sown on nutrient media of Chapek and Sabur. Pure culture was isolated by serial dilutions and the toxicity of isolates was determined on stylonychia. For microscopy, preparations were prepared with fungal mycelium particles, and the isolate was fixed with fixing fluid for Aspergillus fungi. Prior to fixation, the microscopic preparation was briefly placed in 70 % ethanol to wet the spores and remove excess that impeded the study of the nature of sporulation. When studying the toxicity of isolates, extracts from fungal cultures were prepared, poured with sterile physiological saline, filtered, and 0.5 ml were intraperitoneally injected to white mice. Microscopy of pathological material: fluid, mucus in the pulmonary tract revealed the spread of Aspergillus flavus field isolate, in the tracheal tract, in the nasal outflows and lung tissue, the presence of A. flavus and A. niger isolates. Micromycetes A. flavus and A. fumigatus caused the death of Paramecium and Balboa white mice during biotesting. Mycological research of feeds also revealed a wide distribution of fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Thus, the contamination of feed with fungi of the genus Aspergillus, contributed to the penetration of spores into the pulmonary tract of animals with the subsequent occurrence of the disease and the death of calves. Constant monitoring of feed will prevent the occurrence of pulmonary diseases in calves and cattle.
UDC: 619:615.9:661.183.2
Authors: Evgeniya Yu. Tarasova;
Abstract. Introduction. Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites that are produced by various fungi at the appropriate temperature and humidity. Currently, more than 400 mycotoxins have been identified in the world, but the most important groups of mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to human and animal health are: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol due to their teratogenic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, neurotoxic, mutagenic and immunosuppressive characteristics. Recent trends in the removal of mycotoxins from food and feed have led to the use of various adsorbents as feed and food additives. The aim of our research was to study the adsorption capacity of halloysite nanotubes, a recently discovered domestic deposit, in vitro against zearalenone and ochratoxin A, as well as their combination. To determine the adsorption activity of halloysite nanotubes against zearalenone and ochratoxin A, 10 μl of a methanol solution of zearalenone or ochratoxin A with a concentration of 1 μg/μl and the studied adsorbent in an amount of 10 mg were added to a series of test tubes containing 5 ml of water, the test tube without the addition of a sorbent was used as a control. Next, exposure was carried out with constant shaking for 30 minutes, at a temperature of 37 ° C and a pH of 7.0 and 2.0 (modeling the pH in the stomach), then the solution was filtered, toxins from the filtrate were re-extracted into chloroform three times in 20 ml, chloroform extracts combined and evaporated dry on a rotary evaporator. To determine desorption, 5 ml of a solution, in which an alkaline medium pH = 8.0 was created (modeling pH in the intestine), was added to sediments containing complexes (zearalenone + sorbent or ochratoxin + sorbent). The adsorption of zearalenone mycotoxin by halloysite nanotubes was 8.6 μg when added separately and 7.35 μg when combined with ochratoxin A. The adsorption of ochratoxin A was 7.78 and 6.42 μg, respectively, when zearalenone was added. During the experiment, we have shown for the first time that the halloysite nanotubes of a domestic deposit have pronounced sorption properties against zearalenone and ochratoxin A.
UDC: 338.001.36
Authors: Anton L. Kulentsan; Natalia A. Marchuk;
Abstract. Introduction. Employment is one of the main elements that determines not only the standard of living of the population, but also determines the development of the state. Therefore, the problems related to employ-ment and unemployment are relevant for the economy of the Russian Federation. The purpose of the study was to analyze and forecast the number of unemployed in the Southern Federal District for the period from 1995 to 2020. The relevance of this work lies in the high economic and social costs that unemployment entails. Without solving the problem of unemployment, it is impossible to improve the economic situation in the country and achieve economic growth. Materials and methods. The method is based on the use of correlation analysis. Research results and discussions. This article is devoted to the study of changes in the main indicators of the level of the unemployed population. The dynamics of the officially registered number of unemployed in the Southern Federal District is analyzed. The article calculated and quantified factors (wages, population, the increase in high-performance workplaces, the cost of a fixed set of consumer goods and services, the age structure of the population and migration) on the basis of which it is possible to investigate the dynamics of changes in the level of unemployment in the republics of Adygea and Kalmykia, the Krasnodar region, and in Astrakhan, Volgograd and Rostov regions. The analysis made it possible to construct regression equations that describe the relationship between the population size and the factors considered. In this article, the forecast of the distribution of the number of unemployed in the Southern Federal District for 2020 is calculated. Conclusion. The data obtained are of great practical interest, as they will allow us to analyze the current situa-tion in the country and find solutions to reduce unemployment.
UDC: 332.37
Authors: Mikhail O. Peryshkin ;
Abstract. Introduction. To ensure Russia’s food security, it is necessary to improve the efficiency of agriculture. Due to difficult climatic conditions, not all regions can provide the necessary harvest to maintain the country's food security. The purpose of the research is to consider the current state of harvesting of agricultural crops in the European part of Russia and to assess the possibility and feasibility of using biotechnology in agriculture. Materials and methods. During the research, analytical and statistical-economic research methods were applied. The information base of the study was data from open statistical sources. Research results, discussion. The study identified the problem of low yield rates in two federal districts of the European part of Russia. To increase the efficiency and competitiveness of domestic farmers, it was proposed to introduce genetically modified crops into the crop rotation of the European part of Russia. As a confirmation of the hypothesis, the results of harvesting in one of the US states (North Dakota) with the climate closest to the European part of Russia, where the sale of genetically modified crops is allowed, were compared. The cost of introducing genetically modified crops and the benefits that farmers in different countries receive from the introduction were also studied. Conclusion. The introduction of biotechnologies into agricultural circulation can solve the problem of a decrease in cultivated areas and a shortage of food in a number of countries of the world. For the agriculture of European Russia, the introduction of biotechnologies will help to increase the harvest rate in those federal districts and regions where it lags behind the indicators on average in Russia and the indicators of countries with similar or identical land and climatic resources.
UDC: 338-2
Authors: Andrey V. Shvetsov; Natalia K. Shvetsova;
Abstract. Introduction. With the development of data transmission and processing systems and the transfer of an increasing number of business processes of enterprises and organizations to the online mode, the problem of data protection arises. The greatest risks are associated with financial organizations that operate with a signifi-cant amount of financial resources. The convenience and economy of digital banking services carry certain risks: now, in order to rob a bank, it is enough to find a loophole in the banking software. In turn, banks now protect not only their physical branches, but also virtual ones. Purpose: to study the current trends in the impact of information security threats on the largest subjects of the Russian economy, taking into account the development of domestic and global technological solutions. Materials and methods. The paper uses materials from periodicals, data on the financial and economic activities of individual enterprises of the domestic economy. Research results, discussion. The growing demand for security systems is associated with a noticeable increase in cybercrime. The number of hacker attacks in the world continues to grow rapidly, especially against the back-ground of the hasty transition of many companies to remote work. Russian companies working in the field of information security complain about the lack of investment to create new products. The capacity of the domestic Russian IT market does not allow domestic companies to scale their business and attract investor funds for development. Cyber threats are evolving at a rapid pace, now cybercriminals are technically very advanced groups, their business is estimated at billions of dollars. To counter such a powerful shadow business, information security companies themselves need significant investments. Theft, leakage, and destruction of data can have serious consequences for citizens, businesses, and the state as a whole. One of the solutions for the protection of information is the development of quantum communications, which provide the highest degree of data transmission protection available today. Conclusion. Despite the objective difficulties, work in the direction of information security in the banking and telecommunications sectors is quite active, but in our opinion, more active participation of the state is necessary, including taking into account the significant, but unused resources of the National welfare fund in the economy.