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VESTNIK 2 (26) 2021
Date publication on the site:
2021-07-26 11:24:38
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UDC: 633.13:631 [531.04:84]
Authors: Anton G. Vlasov; Sergey P. Khaletsky; Tamara M. Bulavina;
Abstract. Introduction. Nitrogen nutrition of oat plants is a key component in the formation of grain yield, the significance of which depends on crop moisture supply. Early sowing is the main agricultural technique that allows crops in Belarus to efficiently use soil moisture. The aim of the research was to study the effectiveness of different doses of nitrogen fertilizers at different periods of oat sowing, when soil moisture decreases. Materials and methods. Determination of field germination, survival and preservation of oat plants for harvesting, soil moisture of the arable horizon, as well as structural elements and grain yield was carried out according to generally accepted methods. Indicators of photosynthetic activity processes are according to A. A. Nichiporovich. Research results, discussions. The highest field germination rate (88.9 %) and the survival rate of oat plants to harvest (73.2 %) were observed in early-term crops compared to sowing after 7 and 14 days, while their persistence was lower (82.5 %). The maximum photosynthetic potential is 2451 thousand m2 / ha x days at this time of sowing with the introduction of nitrogen N90+30. An increase in the level of nitrogen nutrition from N60 to N90 before sowing and the use of N30 in the tillering stage on these backgrounds contributed to the growth of yield structure elements, sowing the crop 7 and 14 days later than the early sowing period led to their decrease. Conclusions. The highest yield of oat grain is formed at an early sowing period (the onset of physical ripeness of the soil). With a seeding rate of 5.0 million / ha of germinating seeds, the optimal nitrogen dose is N90 once for pre-sowing tillage or fractionally – N60 for pre-sowing treatment and N30 during the tillering stage.
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Ali Kh. Volkov; Ellada K. Рapunidi; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
Annotation. The problem of the development of modern domestic production of healthy food today is acquiring special significance, including as a result of our country's embargo on the import of food from the states that supported anti-Russian sanctions, and can serve as a qualitatively new catalyst in the development of food industries and agricultural production in general. Broiler poultry farming is one of the most priority livestock industries due to its early maturity, high meat productivity, good feed digestibility and relatively low costs. The purpose of these studies was to study blood parameters, safety, productivity, resistance, parameters of poultry meat (such as morphological, organoleptic, microbiological, physicochemical) in the case of feeding poultry with preparations Spirullina platensis-1 and Spirullina platensis-7. For the experiments, 3 groups of broiler chickens of the Smena-4 cross were formed. The duration of poultry rearing and feeding was 42 days. Chickens of all groups received feed used on the farm. The first group additionally received the additive Spirullina platensis-1 at the rate of 150 mg / kg of live weight, the second group received Spirullina platensis-7 at the rate of 150 mg / kg of live weight, the third group received Spirullina platensis-7 at the rate of 450 mg / kg of live weight, and the fourth group served as a control. Studies have shown that these additives stimulate metabolism, which is accompanied by an increase in the content of phosphorus, calcium, protein, hemoglobin, erythrocytes in the blood. When using dietary supplements, the phagocytic response increases by 27.2 %, the bactericidal activity of blood serum by 7.5 %, and the lysozyme activity by 11 %. Preservation increases by 6 %, productivity − by 16 %.
UDC: 633.16:58.056
Authors: Ivan P. Eliseev; Sergey I. Novoselov; Lyudmila V. Eliseeva; Leonid G. Shashkarov;
Annotation. Introduction. The article considers the climatic characteristics of the territory of the economy and agrometeorological conditions during the growing season of the agrocenosis, provides the climatic characteristics of Chuvashia with a description of the agro-climatic conditions of the growing season. The efficiency of crop production depends on the agroclimatic and agroecological resources and is an important technique for increasing their productivity. In this regard, the assessment of the degree of use of plant growth and development factors makes it possible to increase crop yields in specific administrative areas, taking into account its agroclimatic characteristics. The aim of the study is to identify the influence of weather conditions during the growing season on barley productivity, on the change in the structure of sown areas of this crop, as well as the sale price of barley grain over the past decade in the Chuvash Republic in statistics and forecasts. The article presents statistical indicators of barley productivity and sale prices, and agrometeorological conditions for 2009 ... 2020. The materials of weather indicators dynamics for the growing season in the conditions of a moderately warm agro-climatic region of the Chuvash Republic are presented. Agrometorological indicators were obtained from the weather station in the UPOC Studenchesky of the FSBEI HE Chuvash SAU and site data The digital material was processed using MS Office Excel software. The meteorological conditions of the growing season revealed an increase in air temperature by +1.9°C over the years of the study. The research results showed the dependence of agrometeorological indicators, on the productivity of the spring barley crop, in the dynamics of prices for feed barley grain, the structure of crop areas in comparison with similar indicators in the country. The results of the study revealed the reasons influencing the increase in the average price of barley for the period of the study. As a result of the work done, a graphical forecast of barley productivity and its price for 2021 was made using the equation of the polynomial trend line calculated using the formula for the gross yield of barley grain (y = -0.0221x3 + 0.4346x2−1.5971x + 14.648, in million tons) and the formula for predicting the average price of barley (y = 0.0131x3−0.1914x2 + 1.1973x + 3.001, in thousand rubles / ton). The correlation dependence of the average price of barley on weather conditions was 78.5 %, which indicates the direct influence of the weather conditions of the growing season.
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Yuri G. Krysenko; Ivan S. Ivanov; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
Abstract. Analysis of the effect of the drug Rendox, characterized by an antioxidant effect, revealed the optimal scheme of its use in rabbits. This scheme involves the use of Rendox from the age of forty-five days at a dose of twenty-five milligrams for fourteen days. The use of Rendox contributes to a significant increase in the slaughter yield due to muscle mass, i.e. the meat productivity of rabbits. The analysis of the nutritional value of meat was carried out in terms of amino acid and chemical composition. In the group in which the drug was added once in the amount of twenty-five milligrams from the age of forty-five days, an increase in the amount of protein and a reduction in the amount of fat were detected. The article presents the justification for the veterinary and sanitary examination of the products of slaughter of animals in the diet of which the specified drug was introduced, according to such indicators as physico-chemical and sanitary-biological, with an assessment of the biological value and safety of meat, analysis of the structure of the liver and muscles. On the basis of the revealed results, it was established that it is possible to use Rendox in order to minimize technological stresses in industrially kept rabbits. There was no negative effect of the drug on hematological parameters and clinical status. When used from the age of forty-five days, the drug improves some hematological indicators. In the process of veterinary and sanitary examination of animal slaughter products, the cultivation of which used antioxidants, it is possible to use the proposed comprehensive method for evaluating the products of slaughter in veterinary and sanitary terms.
UDC: 632.983.3:631.86:633.16:631.559
Authors: Olga G. Maryina-Chermnykh;
Abstract. Introduction. In recent years, many scientists have paid great attention to new approaches to solving problems to increase the yield of grain crops, which has always been important in solving the grain problem. It is scientifically proved that the use of organic mineral fertilizers improves the soil environment, increasing the yield of grain crops, due to humic acids, macro-and microelements, growth-stimulating actions, and so on. Organic mineral fertilizers are completely safe for the environment and human health. Purpose. To establish the influence of organic mineral fertilizer EcoOrganica on field germination, plant survival and yield of spring barley. Materials and methods. The object of research – the barley variety Vladimir and organic mineral fertilizer EcoOrganica. The studies were carried out by laboratory-field method on sod-podzolic medium loamy soil. Research results. The research results showed that the treatment of barley seeds and crops, both jointly and separately, with organic mineral fertilizer EcoOrganica on sod-podzolic medium loamy soil had a positive effect on field germination and survival of barley. The maximum field germination and survival rate of barley plants was found in the 4th variant (treatment of seeds and crops during the growing season), which amounted to 86 and 91 %, respectively. When using EcoOrganica, the yield of barley also increased from 2,87 to 3,18 t/ha, where the largest increase in grain yield (24,22 %) was provided by the 4th variant (treatment of seeds and crops). Conclusion. EcoOrganica is an effective organic mineral complex that increases field germination, plant survival and grain yield of barley.
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Ellada K. Рapunidi; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Galina S. Stepanova; Gulnur G. Sergeenko;
Annotation. As a component of activities aimed at ensuring the growth of such qualities of farm animals as productive and breeding, ensuring the growth of resistance to diseases of non-infectious and infectious origin, the damage to livestock production from which is the most significant should be noted. Today, when animal husbandry is carried out with the use of intensive industrial technologies, it becomes increasingly important to ensure the growth of the body's resistance to pathogens and negative environmental factors. Adaptation, reproductive capacity and productivity affect the body's resistance and physiological capabilities, which, in turn, determine the optimality of animal husbandry systems. Also, as one of the factors for ensuring higher productivity of animals, increasing the quality characteristics of products, the use of biologically active substances in diets is considered. In modern conditions, there is an annual increase in the number of biologically active drugs recommended for feeding. For the first time, a scientifically based and comprehensive assessment from the veterinary and sanitary point of view of meat, animal offal which was fed calcium peroxide is presented. The blood parameters of animals were studied, the amino acid composition of the liver, muscles, fat, and meat were studied. It was revealed that the indicators of development and growth of animals change in a positive direction when feeding CaO2. A technique for assessing the veterinary and sanitary quality of animal slaughter products fed with CaO2 is proposed. This technique will allow you to determine the possibility of using meat for food. Proposals regarding the use of calcium peroxide in the growing process are formulated, aimed at increasing the rate of development, growth, nutritional value of meat, and body weight gain.
UDC: 338.24
Authors: Dmitry V. Bunkovsky;
Abstract. Introduction. This article discusses the problems and conditions that impede the emergence and sustainable development of legal industrial entrepreneurship in oil refining and petrochemistry. Purpose: to study the constraints to the development of legal entrepreneurship in the oil refining and petrochemical industries. Materials and methods. The article describes the main approaches to the study of the illegal sector of the economy. Some aspects of the manifestation of the problem of illegal entrepreneurship in oil refining are described. The most common schemes of the functioning of illegal industrial entrepreneurship in oil refining, as well as the commission of crimes and offenses of an economic nature in this field of activity are given. Results, discussion. High tax burden, excessive regulation and administrative restrictions of entrepreneurial activity, low level of efficiency of direct and indirect state regulation of pricing are highlighted as factors influencing the development of illegal industrial entrepreneurship and hindering its legalization. The influence of the tax burden factor on the development of legal industrial entrepreneurship and the national economy as a whole is described. Some typical administrative restrictions on entrepreneurial activity are given, which, to a large extent can have a beneficial effect on the expansion of the scope of illegal entrepreneurial activity. A brief description of the administrative burden on industrial entrepreneurship in modern conditions is given. Conclusion. In order to create favorable conditions for the sustainable development of legal industrial entrepreneurship in oil refining and petrochemistry in the modern economy, it is necessary to remove barriers, as well as optimize and harmonize such development factors as the tax burden, regulation and administrative restrictions on entrepreneurial activity. It is important to provide conditions for increasing the volume of oil refining at domestic enterprises and expanding the use of the possibilities of secondary processes at oil refineries.
UDC: 338.43
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin;
Annotation. Introduction. The agro-industrial complex and agriculture are important spheres of the Russian economy that ensure food security of the state as an integral part of economic security, form the market for agricultural products, and contribute to the development of rural areas. The task of providing the population with high-quality, safe food of domestic production is facing any state. The relevance of the research topic is due to the need to form at the present stage an effective model of providing state support to agricultural producers for the formation of a competitive market for domestic agricultural products. The article reveals the importance and role of state support for the development of agribusiness in the Russian Federation. The monitoring of state support in our country was carried out, the main vulnerabilities of small agribusiness were revealed. The main directions of improving state support and the need to develop the infrastructure of small agribusiness entities are identified. A model for improving the effectiveness of state support in the sustainable development of agricultural organizations is proposed. Purpose: to determine measures of state regulation, forms of state support, basic principles and methods of state regulation of the development of the agricultural complex. Materials and methods. Methods of economic and logical analysis are used to assess the effectiveness of management decisions in the provision of state support to the agrarian complex of the Russian Federation at the regional and federal levels. Results of the research, discussions. The updated principles and approaches to subsidizing the agricultural sector of the regions in the context of the selected strategic priorities for the development of the national economy are studied. The main factors influencing the modern agri-food market of the Russian Federation are identified and analyzed. Conclusion. In order to increase the competitiveness of small agribusiness, the state should pay special attention to promoting the implementation of the innovative development path, as well as the development of the institution of agricultural consumer cooperation, state support for local agricultural producers.
UDC: 338.04
Authors: Tatyana V. Sarycheva; Maria G. Sergeeva;
Annotation. Introduction. The article proposes a method of multidimensional grouping of world subregions by indicators of the world coal market development, based on the methods of cluster analysis by the main components. This approach is effective from the point of view of statistical criteria and allows us to distinguish three groups of regions with significant differences in terms of production and use of coal in the domestic market, as well as coal supplies to the world market. Purpose: to propose and implement methodological approaches to carrying out a multidimensional grouping of world subregions according to coal market development indicators. Materials and methods. The published statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service and the United Nations Statistical Division served as the information base for the stated study. Algorithms of multidimensional methods of component, cluster and regression analyzes, graphical data presentation were used as research tools. Results of the research, discussion. A system of indicators characterizing the development of the world coal market has been developed, using the methods of cluster analysis based on the use of the main components, the world subregions of production and use of coal in the domestic market, as well as the supply of coal to the world market, have been identified. Based on the results of the analysis, socio-economic indicators have been identified that determine the rate of the coal market development in subregions belonging to different clusters. The use of methodological approaches proposed by the authors makes it possible to efficiently distribute the world subregions into groups according to the level of coal market development, based on multidimensional statistical methods of analysis. Conclusion. The process of studying the existing structure of the world coal market, as well as the existing difference between countries in the level of their economic development and the uneven distribution of mineral resources around the world, made it necessary to classify subregions acting as participants in the international coal trade according to key indicators of the development of the world coal fuel market.
UDC: 33.338.36
Authors: Aleksey V. Streltsov; Gennady I. Yakovlev;
Abstract. Introduction. In the digital economy, the problems of enhancing the innovation and investment activities of domestic enterprises come to the fore, and there is a need for urgent implementation of measures to modernize the economy. In conditions of instability, growing geo-economic challenges, the importance of finding the necessary sources of investment for the purpose of restoring high-quality growth and sustainable development of different countries is significantly increasing. The problems of technical and technological development are especially acute for domestic enterprises that have already missed several cycles of modernization and are experiencing investment hunger. Research objective: to show that when implementing the modernization agenda, depreciation can be a significant source of mobilizing investments for the reproduction of fixed assets. To substantiate the prerequisites for the formation of mechanisms for the technical development of enterprises that meet the modern requirements of the digital economy by organizing the targeted use of depreciation funds. Research results, discussion. The existing functions of depreciation in the economic mechanism of the enterprise are considered and the prioritization of their reproductive function at the present stage of development of the Russian economy is substantiated. The modern trends in the management of the depreciation fund of enterprises are studied. A critical analysis of the approaches of various authors to the definition of the role of depreciation in the reproduction process is carried out, the argumentation of supporters and opponents of classifying depreciation as one of the most important own sources of investment directed towards technical re-equipment has been studied. The essential characteristics of the depreciation system of the Russian Federation are derived and the directions of their improvement are revealed on the basis of variant calculations according to the author's methodology. Materials and methods. Methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis, retrospective series of dynamics of indicators of the current depreciation policy in Russian industry, as well as a meaningful economic interpretation of the phenomena characterizing the movement of depreciation and fixed assets were used. Conclusion. The existing depreciation system of means of labor does not orient it towards the implementation of the reproductive function. This is a consequence of more systemic shortcomings associated with underestimating the role of depreciation both in the reproduction process and in the regulation of macroeconomic proportions in general. The implementation of the proposed measures will significantly increase the efficiency of the depreciation policy in industry and entrepreneurship, ensure the effectiveness of its reproductive function in the digital economy.