- VESTNIK 2(14) 2018
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COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE AGROPHYTOCENOSES WITH VARIOUS STRUCTURE IN THE ARID LANDS OF THE NORTHERN CASPIAN REGION
Authors: Galina K. Bulakhtina; Alexander V. Kudryashov; Natalya I. Kudryashova;
Introduction. In connection with the increased demand for livestock products, the availability of fodder lands becomes critical, especially in arid regions. The purpose of the research is to carry out comparative studies of mono- and polycomponent agrophytocenoses, adapted to extreme conditions and contributing to the ecological restoration and increasing the productivity of degraded pasture eco-systems in the arid lands of the Northern Caspian region. Materials and methods. The sowed herbs are: on a monocomponent piece of land – ordinary sowing with a row spacing of 0,6 m of the mixture of Agropyrum: broad-billed and comb-like; on a polycomponent plot of land – separately ordinary sowing with a row spacing of 0,6 m of fodder plants of various life forms: grass – a mix of Agropyrum (broad-billed and comb-like) and Elytrigia elongata; small bush Kochia prostrata; bush Ceratoides рарposa. Monitoring is on a natural pasture. Common methods and techniques were applied: M. M. Shagaipova (agrotechnology), B. A. Dospekhova, All-Russian Research Institute of Foraging named after V. R. Williams, determination of feed nutritional status was carried out at the “Astrakhansky” State Center of Agrochemical Service. Results, discussion. According to the phenological ranges, it was found that the polycomponent agrophytocenosis creates eaten fodder mass twice longer (six months) than monocomponent, and all the year round it is a source of highly nutritious well-eaten forage. In the first two years, mono-and polycomponent agrophytocenoses had a similar dry yield, but exceeded the natural pas-ture in 2 times in the first year, as well as in 3 times in the second year. The nutritiousness of a forage of a monocomponent agrophytocenosis had also no reliable distinctions with polycomponent, but both options surpassed natural pastures in fodder units – by 2,5–3,9, in the digested protein – in a 2,2–3,5. Conclusion. The results of the research showed that monocomponent agrophytocenosis can be used as a haymaking in an arid zone of the South of Russia, so polycomponent – as a pasture. Further studies will be aimed at determining the longevity of both indi-vidual components and agrophytocenosis as a whole.
INNOVATIVE APPROACH TO CEREAL CROPS PRODUCTION
Authors: Aleksandr I. Volkov; Nikolay A. Kirillov; Darya V. Lukina;
In the climate conditions of Chuvashia on weakly washed gray forest soils in 2005–2014 conducted field experiments to identify the effectiveness of tra-ditional and innovative technologies for cultivating cereals with minimal and no tillage. Research was carried out in the field crop rotation: clover – winter wheat and rye – potato – spring wheat – barley with clover seeding. The average productivity of crop rotations in both rotations was higher in variants with the innovative approach of cultivation of grain crops. In the second rotation, the largest yield per hectare of grain arable and fodder units was noted in the variant with minimal processing, and the largest cost of main and by-products – with zero. The variant using traditional technology was significantly inferior to the variant with a minimum work-out for grain output by 2,7 %; the yield of fodder units – by 2,4 %; of primary and secondary products by 2,3 %. Technology based on zero tillage was significantly inferior to others in terms of yield: winter wheat by 0,12 and 0,13 t/ha or 5,5 and 5,9 %, winter rye by 0,10 and 0,09 t/ha or 4,6 and 4,2 %, spring wheat – by 0,12 and 0,11 t/ha or 4,2 and 3,9 % and barley by 0,10 and 0,09 t/ha or 4,5 and 4,0 % respectively. The yield of grain from 1 hectare of crop rotation area in this variant was minimal in the experiment (1,39 tons). The largest (30243,4 rubles/ha) cost of main and by-products was obtained in the variant using zero processing. It was higher than the values of this indicator in variants with minimal tillage and traditional plowing by 43,6 and 186,6 rubles/ha or 0,1 and 0,6 %, respectively.
EXPANSION OF THE RANGE OF BLUE HONEYSUCKLE IN SOIL AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL
Authors: Vladimir P. Golovunin;
In nature, over 200 ornamental and edible species of honeysuckle are known. In Russia 16 species grow. In the gardens of the European part of the country, it is increasingly possible to find a shrub with goat-sweet, sour-sweet large berries. The scientific name of this shrub is blue honeysuckle (Lonicera caerulea L.). It is unpretentious, grows and fructifies even on poor soils, does not require special care, diseases and pests do almost not damage it. The bushes of honeysuckle edible can withstand frosts to –50 ºC, and flowers do not fear freezing to –7–8 ºC. The berries ripen 7–10 days before strawberries. That gives the first berries of the season. Honeysuckle berries are rich in vitamins. They contain many useful microelements for the hu-man body: iodine, magnesium, boron, selenium and others. The content of vitamin C is not inferior to lemon. The purpose of the research is to select the varieties capable of ensuring a stable yield of berry products at a level of 2,0–2,2 t/ha in the soil and climatic conditions of the Republic of Mari El. The object of the research – 17 varieties of blue-leafy planted in 2000, 2004 and 2007. As a control, the Goluboe vereteno variety was taken. Analysis of the obtained long-term experimental data shows that the majority of the varieties under study are large-grained with an average weight of 1 berry from 1,0 to 1,6 g. The varieties Viola, Lebedushka, Elite form No. 81, Amphora, Pamyat Silaevu, Nizhny Novgorod dessert belong to a group of varieties - not crumbling and with a weak degree of berry shedding (0-1 point). The evaluation of the tested varieties on a set of economically valuable features makes it possible to distinguish a high-productive assortment of blue honeysuckle with different maturity in the conditions of the Republic of Mari El: Elite form No. 39, Blue-bird, Fialka, Amphora, Tomichka, Vasyuganskaya, Early Nizhny Novgorod, Elite form No. 50, Pamyat Silaeva, Nizhny Novgorod dessert, Elite form number 81, Podarok Dergunovy, Lakomka
YIELD AND QUALITY OF MONOECIOUS HEMP RETTING OF DIANA VARIETIES, DEPENDING ON SEEDING RATE
Authors: Vladislav L. Dimitriev; Leonid G. Shashkarov; Marina I. Yakovleva;
Therefore, it was necessary to study the effect of seeding rate on yield and quality of retting. To solve the tasks in the period 2011–2013 it was allocated 10 spatially isolated sites. The predecessor were perennial grasses. The area of each plot was 100 m2. The seeding was carried out in wide way (inter-row spacing was 70 cm) with the manual seeder SR-1 in the sowing rates: 0,1; 0,3; 0,6; 0,9; 1,2; 1,5; 1,8; 2,1; 2,4; 2,7 million per 1 ha. The harvesting was done by cutting the plants by sickle at a height of not more than 5 cm from the ground. The harvest of the stems was taken into account by the method of complete enumeration. The distance of the stems was carried out in autumn (September-October) on the site that was flat, well, lit by the sun, protected from prevailing winds, and covered with dense grass. The end of the process of flax retting is mounted on the external features of rettings: it was a dark gray color, and the fiber was freely separated from the wood in the form of continuous ribbons. The results of these studies showed that the productivity of retting increases in 1,1-4,3 times with the thickening of crops. Nevertheless, we recommend sowing seeds of high reproductions (elite and super-elite) in the seed farms to produce a seeding rate of 1,2–1,8 million pieces per 1 ha, depending on climatic conditions, vegetation period, it is possible to ensure that you are getting from 42,1 to 85,3 C of retting per hectare. It follows from the research results thet with an increase in seeding rates, the length of the technical part of the stems is increased by 4,0 to 24,6 percent, the fiber content by 6,1–12,6 %, the fiber strength by 4,4 to 12,4 kgf. In thickened crops; the thickness of the technical parts of stalks are 1,3–2,3 times less than on sparse crops. When reproduction of elite seeds and super-elite seeding rate should be within 1,2–1,8 million pieces per 1 hectare.
METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF CREATION OF HETEROGENEOUS AGROPHYTOCENOSIS AND THEIR ROLE IN ENHANCING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF THE AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPE
Authors: Yurii A. Lapshin;
The article reveals the methodical aspects of the creation of highly productive alternative hetero-geneous agrophytocenosis and reflects their role in improving the productivity of the agricultural landscape. Further development of theoretical princi-ples of heterogeneous cenoses modeling taking into account their intended use, inclusion and study of new crop components, clarification of their optimal ratio and influence on soil fertility and ecological stability of agrolandscapes, improvement of the provisions of the method of heterogeneous cenoses construction remains relevant and requires the search for new approaches. In the Mari Research Institute of Agriculture in different years, on sod-podzolic cultivated soils, field experiments on the study of the effectiveness of cultivation of mixed spring cereal agrophytocenoses were carried out, in particular: peas-barley (1992-1994), lupino-barley (2001-2004) and fodder-goat-rump (1997-2000), as well as mixed winter agrophytocenoses created on the basis of triticale (2006-2014). Binary crops of Eastern goat and boneless rump are more productive than single-species ones for the collection of dry matter by 11–23 %, crude protein by 3–23 %. Heterogeneous winter and spring agrophytocenoses cultivated for grain and green mass should be considered as one of the ways of biological processes in agriculture and crop production and economical ways of producing high-quality feed. Mixed agro-phytocenoses, performing the environment-forming function, are the most significant factor that stabilizes the ecological condition of agro landscaping territo-ries. Culture components in these agrophytocenoses, avoiding intraspecific competition has more rational use of natural resources of the environment, are less susceptible to diseases, and contribute to the preser-vation of soil fertility. The cultivation of mixed agrophytocenoses improves the energy and protein balance of green mass and grain feed, which ultimately has a positive impact on the productivity of animals. With proper selection of crop compo-nents, varieties and their ratios in the simulated agrophytocenosis, it is possible to strengthen its resource-saving function. With the cultivation of simulated heterogeneous agrophytocenoses, the total production and biological efficiency of crop compo-nents increases.
EFFECT OF SODIUM FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON CROP PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITY OF BARLEY GRAIN
Authors: Sergey I. Novoselov; Albert N. Kuzminykh;
In the conditions of field experience we studied the aftereffect of green fertilizer on the yield and quality of barley grain. It was revealed that the highest grain harvest of 3,04 t/ha was obtained when barley was cultivated without the use of fertilizers on the afteref-fect of sideral fertilizer against the background of the blade plowing. The minimum grain yield of 2,02 t/ha were obtained in the cultivation of barley in crop rota-tion with bare fallow, with the use of surface pre-winter tillage without the use of fertilizers. The residual effect of green manure and fertilizers application of mineral fertilizers increased grain barley content of crude protein and test weight. In grain of barley grown in crop rotation with green manure by steam, crude protein contained 10,2–10,8 %, and 9,4–10,2 % in crop rotation with bare fallow. When barley was cultivated in the crop rotation with pure steam without the use of mineral fertilizers, plowing provided a higher content of raw protein in the grain compared to disking. Grain field with a maximum weight of 631 g/l was obtained by cultivation of barley in crop rotation with green manure fallow on the background of autumn ploughing with the application of fertilizers. The mass of 1000 grains of barley grown in crop rotation with bare fallow was 37,2–38,5 g, and 37,6–38,9 g in crop rotation with green manure steam. Maximum weight of 1000 grains of 39,6 g was obtained in the cultivation of barley in crop rotation with bare fallow on the background of plowing and the application of mineral fertilizers. The residual effect of green manure fertilizers increased the removal of nitrogen on the formation of 1 ton of barley from 24 kg/t to 25–26 kg/t Applied mineral fertilizers increased the removal of nitrogen and potassium for the crop. In the third year after the introduction of green mass of vetch oat mixture with barley has been used from green manure nitrogen 5,2–6,5 %, phosphorus of 5,6–8,3 % and potassium of 2,1–4,2 percent.
USING DAIRY WHEY IN VERMIPRODUCTION
Authors: Sergey I. Okhotnikov; Tatyana V. Kabanova;
Currently, the utilization of unused whey is the main problem of the dairy industry. The search for rational ways to use this secondary raw material is topical both from an ecological and economic point of view. The authors of this article are interested in the possi-bility of using whey to moisturize substrates used in vermin production. Vermin production is a fairly well-developed technology for processing various organic wastes, based on the use of worms Eisenia fetida. Previously, the authors studied the chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of two types of whey – cheese and curd, ment for irrigation. In particular, mass fractions were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, lactose, density, acidity and pH. It was found that the raw whey, unlike curd, contains more solids and is characterized by low acidity, which is a positive factor for substrates for vermiculture. The substrates were populated with the same number of mature individuals. Throughout the experiment, substrates for vermiculture were mois-tened with cheese and cheese serums, in control – with water. At the end of the experiments they analyzed the reproduction indicators of Eisenia fetida (Sav.) worms as an increase in number, biomass, and the number of cocoons detected, the number of young individuals at different stages of ontogenesis. The analysis of the results of the experiment showed that the prolonged hydration of substrates for the cultivation of worms Eisenia fetida by cheese whey and cottage cheese whey does not have an oppressive effect on their livelihoods. Indicators of reproductive ability of Eisenia fetida in the variants of experiment in comparison with the control turned out to be quite high.
EFFICIENCY OF FIELD-PROTECTIVE PLANTS AND TECHNOLOGIES OF SOIL PROCESSING IN THE DRY-STEPPE ZONE OF THE VOLGOGRAD REGION
Authors: Alexander N. Sarychev;
Introduction. Winter wheat is the leading grain crop in the Volgograd region. The main predecessor for it is complete fallow. However, this predecessor has a number of negative shortcomings, so the technology of wheat cultivation in the southern regions of the Volgograd region should ensure the reproduction of fertility and protection of the soil from deflation and erosion. Purpose. The purpose of the work is to study the influence of field shelterbelts and soil tillage technologies on the water regime of light chestnut soil, the elements of the crop structure and the productivity of winter wheat. Materials and methods. Four variants of soil cultivation were studied in the experiment: moldboard plowing, shallow flat loosening, disking and processing with a combined implement. Experimental plots were laid out on experimental fields with protective forest stands and without forest belts. Observations, field and laboratory agrochemical analyzes were carried out according to the appropriate methods. Results of the study. The studies have shown that the water regime of light chestnut soil is influenced by soil cultivation technologies and field protective plantations. In the conditions of agroforest landscape, the distribution of moisture reserves within the inter-stripe space is not uniform: the largest moisture reserve is formed in the zones located at a distance of 5–15 H. The field-protective forest belts contribute to the increase and conservation of moisture reserves in the soil. On average, over the years of research, the moisture reserve in fields with forest strips was higher by 11,4 mm, and on some sites by 25–30 mm. Soil cultivation by the combined APK-6 aggregate is the most effective option for the accumulation and preservation of soil moisture among the studied soil treatment samples. Since soil moisture in the subzone of light chestnut soils is a limiting factor of guaranteed yield, the features of the water regime influenced the final productivity of winter wheat. The increase in yields under the protection of forest belts in this variant in 2015 was on average 0,06 t/ha, as well as 0,25 t/ha in 2016, 0,31 t/ha in 2017. In the variant with combined soil treatment, the highest yield was obtained in comparison with other studied variants from 1,29 t/ha in dry years, up to 3,5 t/ha in favorable conditions. Conclusion. Thus, in the subzone of light chestnut soils of the Volgograd Region it is necessary to carry out the main tillage of the soil with a combined implement and to carry out agroforest improvement of the territory, for the effective cultivation of winter wheat.
RESULTS STUDY OF HUSKED OAT COLLECTION STUDY UNDER CONDITIONS OF THE KIROV REGION
Authors: Marina V. Tulyakova; Galina A. Batalova; Svetlana V. Permyakova; Igor' G. Loskutov;
The article presents the results of studying the collec-tion sorts of husked oat on cultivated and aluminous acid sod-podzolic soils of the Falenskaya selection station - the branch of Federal Agricultural Scientific Center of North-East (Kirov region). Modern varieties of cereal crops must combine both high stable yield capacity and resistance to unfavorable envi-ronmental factors as well as high product quality. Genetic sources of different ecological-and-geographic origin are the basis of competitive varieties breeding. Conditions of growing season differed significantly during study that allowed to investigate all aspects of oat samples and to select sources of some breeding-valuable traits and their combination. The samples 15257 RA 7836-416 and 15258 RA 7836-2701 from the USA combined earliness – period from seedlings till wax maturity was 64 days – with resistance to loose smut. Sample k-3005 IFМI 3529 (Germany) had increased 1000-grain mass (37,1 g), fat content (3,14 %), and high test weight (604 g/l). Low grain huskiness had samples 15204 Doron (Great Britain), 15255 Acjuniper (Canada), k-3133 100565-2 (USA), and 322h10 i. s. from k-2164 ВАI 5014 (Kirov region, Russia) – correspondingly 24,0; 23,7; 22,9, and 24,1 %. Grain quality and resistance to loose smut under artificial infectious background (7 points) were combined in samples 15262 РА 7967-3145 (USA), 15152 Witterberg (South African Republic). Most breeding value have sources with complex of traits: samples 15213 Yakov (Russian Federation) and k-2981 IFMI 3437 (USA) – productive on cultivated and aluminum-acid sod-podzolic soils; samples k-3134 100565-3, k-3135 100656-4, and k-2989 IFMI3282 (USA) are resistant to complex of pathodenes and have high grain quality. High level of 1000-grain mass (46,6 g), test weight (606 g/l), and grain protein content (12,0 %) are characteristic for early sample 15181 Valentin (Slovenia).
ANTIGENIC COMPOSITION INFLUENCE OF BLOOD GROUP ERYTHROCYTES ON THE LEVEL OF THE DAIRY COWS PRODUCTIVITY
Authors: Liudmila V. Holodova; Klavdija S. Novoselova;
To reflect the selection processes occurring in the breed and herd, it is necessary to research the allele fund of the most polymorphic systems of blood groups. Knowing the antigenic composition of eryth-rocytes and their relationship with the indicators of milk productivity, you can control the genetic struc-ture of the herd, accumulating those genotypes that are positively combined with economically useful traits. Research on the effect of the antigenic compo-sition of erythrocytes on the level of milk productivity of the cows of the Ayrshire breed have been conducted at JSC “Mariyskoye”. Over the past five years, a herd of Ayrshire cattle in JSC “Mariyskoye” has undergone significant changes in both the number of antigens of erythrocytes in blood groups and in the frequency of their spread. For the last time in the herd there were no animals that had antigens of the EAM system. At present, the individuals with new antigens are found in the population of Airshire cattle. In total, 55 antigens belonging to 8 blood group systems were detected in the herd animals. These changes are due to the use of bioproducts of Canadian and Finnish bulls in the herd. It was found that the yield of cows that have some antigens higher than their peers, in which they are absent. At the same time, cows are lactating in the herd, which are not carriers of some antigens, and at the same time their milk yield is higher compared to those who have them. By the mass fraction of fat, there is also a certain tendency to decrease or increase this valuable quality, depending on the presence or absence of some blood antigens. Studies conducted on the search for interrelations between the antigenic properties of blood and the milk productivity of the cows of the Ayrshire breed made it possible to identify antigens markers of indicators of milk productivity.
TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MONOECIOUS HEMP FIBRE OF DIANA VARIETY, DEPENDING ON SOWING RATES AND SOWING QUALITIES OF SEEDS
Authors: Leonid G. Shashkarov; Vladislav L. Dimitriev; Marina I. Yakovleva;
With bilateral use of hemp (on seeds and fiber), it is necessary to spend no less than 80 man-hours to conduct al least 8-fold species weeding (sampling of plants of fimble hemp) on each hectare of crops. Therefore, it was necessary to find cost-effective, more simplified method of reproduction of seeds. In 2010, initially, we created the original seed material in 4 spatially isolated areas (at least 1,5 km apart). The sowing was carried out by a wide-row method (inter-row spacing is 70 cm) with seeding rates: 0,1; 0,9; 1,8; 2,7 million pieces of seeds per 1 ha. During the vegetative period of plants, a thorough 8-fold species weeding was carried out at all sites. In 2011–2013, the seed material created in this way was multiplied in 4 spatially isolated areas by means of re-plantings. The size of the breeding plots was 100 m2, and the sowing was carried out manually in a wide-ration method with a seeding rate of 0,9 seeds per 1 hectare. Species weeding were not carried out at sites of reproduction. When reproducing, regardless of the conditions for creating the source material, the mass of 1000 seeds decreases insignifi-cantly – 12,5–13,3 %. Laboratory germination of all seed lots comply with the requirements of state standard and meet the standards of the first class. Thus, with proper preparation of the seed they can be propagated by the method of passages without significant deterioration of sowing qualities within 3–4 years. In the process of seed reproduction, the greatest number of fibrous elements in plants (for 23,1–24,6 per cent) is formed from the seed grown on plots with the seeding rate of 0,1–0,9 million pieces per 1 hectare. Some increase in strength and splitting of fiber on production crops (the first reproduction) is due to the increase in the proportion of plants in the population of fimble hemp.
SPURRED RYE HARMFULNESS ON NEW WINTER RYE VARIETIES IN THE KIROV REGION
Authors: Lucia M. Shchekleina; Tatiana K. Sheshegova;
The article presents the results of studies on the study of the harmfulness of spurred rye for 2015-2017 on the experimental field of the Zonal Scientific Research Institute of Agriculture of the Northeast. The aim of the research was to identify the nature and severity of spurred rye and to analyze the varietal specificity of the disease on the basis of plant productivity. Twenty-six winter rye varieties different on susceptibility were used as material for study, the study of which was carried out with artificial inoculation of flowers with a suspension of pathogen conidia. Defeat of sclerotium was estimated at its formation. After harvesting the weight ratio of grain and sclerotium in grain mass, the number of grain per spike, size and mass of grain per spike depend on degree of its defeat were estimated. It is established that under conditions of artificial and natural epiphytotia the studied test-varieties had very low frequency of resistant genotypes. Only six varieties (Triumph, Grafit, Perepel, Chulpan 7, Marusenka, and Slavia) have un-defeated plants within their populations with frequency of 4,2–12,0 %. However, significant varietal differentiation is discovered on grain pollution with sclerotium that varied within 7,1 % (Perepel) up to 47,7 % (Solnechnaya). So at the given stage of development of this breeding direction it should be selected varieties and single biotypes with the lowest amount of sclerotium. Varieties Rada, Slavia, Tatiana, Triumph, and Graciya were the most productive under conditions of artificial inoculation; the limits of trait were 323 up to 423 g/m2 that is significantly (P ≥ 0,95) higher then the standard variety Falenskaya 4. The spurred rye damage level depends to a greater extent on the number and size of sclerotia in the spike than from its spread in the crop. It is established significant (Р ≥ 0,95) the effect of weediness of the grain mass by sclerotia on yield (r = –0,65) and on plant productivity (r = –0,65). Thus, significant decrease in elements of ear productivity (grain number, their weight, and 1000 grain mass) is pointed at forming of only one-two sclerotium in it.
INFORMATION FOR THE USE OF EXTERNAL USERS IN THE EVALUATION OF PAYMENTS
Authors: Olga I. Averina; Karina O. Erastova;
Introduction. The development of crisis phenomena in the country has reduced the financial stability of the majority of economic entities, which resulted in a reduction in cash flow and an increase in debts to contractors. In the current economic conditions, the need for control over the ability of the organization to pay its obligations not only for internal but also external users increases every year. Purpose. Research various information needs for external users in assessing solvency. Materials and methods. The materials for the study were the information of the annual report of PJSC, as well as internal data. The research method includes analysis, comparison, systematization and generalization of modern scientific literature on the research topic. Results, discussion. The study considered the infor-mation needs of external users in the assessment of solvency. It was found that the information base of the solvency analysis for external users is the form of accounting (financial) statements, the analytical capacity of which can be used to calculate various indicators of solvency. On the example of PJSC, the main external users of accounting (financial) statements interested in the analysis of solvency were considered and their characteristics were given. Conclusion. As a result of the study, we divided the external users of accounting (financial) statements, the most interested in assessing the solvency of the categories: debtors, creditors and credit institutions. It is important for debtors to analyze the solvency of the enterprise before the conclusion of large transactions, as depending on the results of the analysis, it is possible to draw conclusions whether this counterparty will fulfill its obligations under the contract. Lenders analyze solvency, liquidity and financial stability, as it is the evaluation of these indicators allows to obtain reliable confidence about the deliberate receipt of funds/products from the company in the medium and long term. And the most interested external users were credit institutions that specifically develop the methodology and determine on the basis of its results the possibility of granting a loan.
MANAGEMENT OF TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS SYSTEM EFFICIENCY: METHODOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES
Authors: Pulod H. Azimov;
The relevance of research. The growth and compli-cation of interstate trade and economic relations require the creation of conditions for improving the effectiveness of their management. The state of transport and logistics systems largely determines the effectiveness of regional and interstate trade and economic relations. In such conditions, the formation of methodological principles for the effective management of transport and logistics systems is required. The purpose of the study is to develop methodological principles for effective management of the transport and logistics system. To achieve this goal, the following tasks are consistently addressed: a) assessment of the state of investment in transport infrastructure; b) analysis of indicators of investment activity in the transport sector of the Republic of Tajikistan; c) evaluation of the performance indicators of the development of the transport and logistics system of the Republic of Tajikistan; d) clarification of the main concepts and provisions of the methodology; e) clarification of the concepts of “management”, “efficiency”,“performance management”. Based on the results of the solution of the problems posed in this paper, the following results were obtained. The study proves the importance of measuring the efficiency of the development of transport and logistics systems. It is concluded that not always a significant amount of investment in the development of transport and logistics infrastructure provides an increase in the level of transport and logistics services. The role of principles in the methodology of activity is defined. Author's opinion is given regarding the content of the concepts “management”, “efficiency”, “efficiency manage-ment”, “transport and logistics systems”. The system of principles of management of efficiency of transport-logistical systems is resulted. The content of the principles of goal-setting is disclosed. The principles of effective planning of the development of transport and logistics systems are formulated. The author's opinion on the content of the complex of principles of effective organization and effective control of the functioning of the transport and logistics system is presented. The obtained results make it possible to draw the following conclusions. The methodological principles of managing the efficiency of transport and logistics systems developed by the author can be used as the basis for appropriate mechanisms and strategies for the long-term development of the country's transport and logistics complex. In their totality, the developed basic provisions cover the basic functions of management and are a system of methodological principles for the management of transport and logistics complexes.
IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICY ON JORDAN'S ECONOMIC GROWTH
Authors: Abdulla A. Al-Masaid; Evgenii I. Tsaregorodtsev;
The article is devoted to analysis of the impact of fiscal policy on economic growth of Jordan; it discusses the general problems of fiscal policy in Arab countries such as Algeria, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates. The aim of the work is to develop recommendations to improve the efficiency of fiscal policy in Jordan on the basis of selected indicators. Materials and methods. The dynamics of the gross domestic product of the Arab world countries is studied in dependence on the fiscal policy. Indicators of fiscal policy influence on economic growth in Jordan during the period 1990–2016 were analyzed in detail. The main method is a comparative analysis of the views of leading Arab experts on this issue. The study used descriptive and quantitative approaches and several tests, including the extended ADF Dicki-Fuller test, the Phelps Peron test, the Johansen cointegration test, and the error correction model. The results are expressed in the identification of features of the formation of fiscal policy in the Kingdom of Jordan. The results of regulation of fiscal policy since the founding of the modern Kingdom of Jordan were considered. Discussion. The role of regulation has increased dramatically since 1989, when the Jordanian dinar fell substantially against other currencies. Then Jordan applied the first corrective program, which continued until the crisis in the Persian Gulf in the summer of 1990, when it became impossible to continue the program. Since 1992, Jordan has embarked on the next program of economic reforms. Conclusion. The most effective for Jordan economic instruments have been identi-fied, such as the preference for spending cuts to reduce public deficits, which will be a mechanism for applying strict economy to reduce public spending. Government investment spending has a strong impact on macroeconomic performance. Reducing production costs also have a positive and significant impact on consumption.
PROSPECTS FOR INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE HOP-GROWING CLUSTER OF THE CHUVASH REPUBLIC
Authors: Anatoliy I. Zakharov; Oleg V. Evgrafov; Andrei E. Makushev; Marija L. Tolstova; Dmitry A. Zakharov;
The article is devoted to the problems of hops production, both at the world level and in some regions of the Russian Federation. In the Chuvash Republic in the middle of the 20th century hops took up 0,3–0,6 % of the arable land, the profitability of production was 60 %, or 35 % of the total income for the crop sector. However a modern hopgrowing of Chuvashia is in the crisis state. In 2017, in Chuvashia, the harvest of hops was collected from 98,3 hectares, while in Germany the area of hops was 19,5 thousand hectares. In this regard, the study of areas for improving the economic efficiency of hops production at the regional level seems very relevant. The purpose of the study is to develop recommenda-tions for increasing the efficiency of hop production at the regional level. The sector of world production of hops, is experiencing a period of structural deficit, in which manufacturers are constantly increasing the area under the hops, trying to keep up with the constantly growing demand. The comparative analysis of production and realization of hop showed in the countries of Western Europe and USA, that in the world market suggestion of hop with high maintenance of alpha-acids falls behind from growing demand and hereupon prices on a hop jumped up sharply. The article focuses attention on the fact that in general in Russia and the Chuvash Republic for the period under study, the production of hops has decreased many times, while the pre-reform period the republic produced up to 90 % of the total volume produced in the whole in the Russian Federa-tion. As a result, Russia's share in world production of hop is insignificant. In general, the research has shown that one of the most effective tools for solving industry development challenges is the creation of a cluster. The structure of the hop-growing cluster of the Chuvash Republic includes industry enterprises, breweries, as well as enterprises that serve production and infrastructure.
MAIN DIRECTIONS OF AGRICULTURE MODERNIZATION IN MODERN RUSSIA
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of the main directions of modernization of agriculture as one of the key directions of the state economic policy. Sustainable growth of the industry is impossible without quality provision of material and technical, infrastructural, innovative bases of activity. The considered sphere of economic activity traditionally plays an important role in ensuring national and food security, but should be supported by the state due to the influence of a set of factors that make agriculture vulnerable, economically viable. The main objectives of modernization are to provide agricultural producers with advanced technologies, digitalization of management, marketing and marketing activities. An important area is the development of small and medium-sized businesses, which solves important tasks for the socio-economic development of rural areas. The objective is to consider the main directions of modernization of agriculture in modern Russia, taking into account the characteristics of innovation. Materials and methods: analysis of statistical information, modeling of socio-economic processes, systematic and situational approaches associated with the adaptation of the industry to global phenomena and processes. Results of the study, discussion: the directions of development of agriculture in Russia, which are to reduce costs and resource saving, the introduction of advanced pro-duction methods, which are characterized by high technology and complex effect. The indicators of innovative activity in agriculture in Russia, which are 4 % and significantly inferior to the rate of modernization of industrial enterprises. The main directions of innovative agribusiness are presented, the leading positions belong to Internet trade and logistics, which corresponds to the General trends in other industries. Conclusion: modernization of agriculture should be carried out on a systematic basis, based on indicators, indicators, program and target management and directed to the main and re-lated sectors of the industry.
SIMULATION OF BUSINESS PROCESSES AS A TOOL OF IMPROVING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE ACTIVITIES OF ORGANIZATIONS
Section: NATURAL SCIENCES
Authors: Marija V. Stafievskaya; Valeriya O. Petrova;
Today, all economic entities are trying to improve their position in the market by introducing new tech-nologies of doing business, effective management methods. The modern manager should have reliable information about the work of his company, clients, interaction with the external environment. To do this, there is a need to model business processes, a method that allows you to identify internal, inefficient algorithms created to optimize and improve the overall results. Thus, the issues related to the study of business processes are relevant, since they affect the effectiveness of the functioning of organizations. In the article the authors consider the enterprise, engaged in the sphere of services. Various business processes are considered and a labor-intensive area is identified, namely labor and wage accounting. This site requires the accountant to strictly record, control, as the results of calculations affect the timely solvency with employees and the correct calculation of taxes. The goal of the study was to increase the efficiency of the company's activities in the service sector using the business process modeling method. The authors proposed such forms of working docu-ments as “Tableing”, “Schedule of work”, “Report on spent shifts”. In the process of analyzing existing solutions, various software products were considered, including 1C industry solutions. This is a fairly convenient and multifunctional platform, however, it was revealed that a number of requirements for the software product in this case are not satisfied. The developed author software is aimed at the complete automation of the scheduling and scheduling process taking into account all necessary aspects: hospital, leave, affiliation to divisions, peculiarities of the order of shifts, etc. Author's recommendations are tested in the enterprise under investigation and show a significant reduction in costs, time for implementation, both as a separate process of the enterprise, and in general. The evaluation of the economic efficiency of the project implemented within the framework of this work confirmed the feasibility and rationality of the development.
PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF MANAGERIAL DECISION-MAKING
Authors: Надежда Jankelová; Андреа Jankurová; Ondrej Rašovec;
Введение. Умение принимать решения для менеджеров является необходимым качеством, сочетающим рациональные и интуитивные способности. В научных кругах возникают дискуссии о мере рациональности, интуиции или о влиянии других субъективных факторов в процессе принятия решений. Субъективные подходы играют в процессе принятия решений важную роль. Те, кто принимают решения, очень часто находятся под влиянием разных предрассудков, состояния мысли или «спецэффектов», и, вопреки тому, что они любым способом стре¬мятся вести себя рационально, попадают в их ловушку. Одновременно они считают, что у них доста¬точно много опыта для принятия решений на осно¬ве интуиции. Целью ис-следования является иденти¬фикация и значение неизбежных факторов в процессе принятия решений. Наблюдая бесконечные сомнения и дискуссии по теме рациональности и интуиции в процессе принятия решений менеджерами и для подчеркивания потребности качественных методов исключительного характера решаемых задач и перемен обстановки, статья занимается исследованием, критической оценкой и предоставляет собственные мнения по субъективным подходам в принятии реше¬ний менеджерами в современной трактовке и последовательную верификацию полученных знаний на практике работы компаний в Словакии. Материалы и методы. Методологической основой исследования является система метода научного знания как общих научных (диалектики, формальной логики, ана-лиза и синтеза, моделирования), а также и специаль¬ных методов (статистических, функциональных), которые дадут возможность до-стичь цели и образуют методоло¬ги¬ческую основу статьи. Результаты. На вы¬ше¬при¬ве¬денном основа-нии была построена гипотеза исследо¬вания, которая не подтвердилась. Опрос менеджеров компаний в Сло¬вакии показал тенденцию использовать интуицию, но они в большей мере ориентированы в сторону рационально-аналитичес¬кого подхода. С другой стороны, подтвердилась гипотеза, что менеджеры компаний в Словакии при объяснении своих решений недо-оценивают влияние эмоциональ¬ных, когнитивных и соци¬ально подчиненных склонов. Заключение. Исследование доказало что менеджеры не считают эмоции важным фактором в процессе принятия решений. В рамках принятия решений менеджеры в Словакии также недооценивают отклонений от рациональности. На стратегическом уровне принятия решений в большей мере проявляется рациональность принятия решений.