- VESTNIK 3(15) 2018
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- 2018-10-16 10:19:55
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WATER CONSUMPTION OF COMMON BEAN DEPENDING ON AGROTECHNOLOGICAL METHODS OF CULTIVATION IN THE CONDITIONS OF ASTRAKHAN REGION
Authors: Anastasia N. Bondarenko;
Studies on cultivation of common bean of Rubin variety were carried out in conditions of light chestnut solonetz soils of the Astrakhan region during 2014–2017. To study the influence of foliar (leaf) treatment of growth stimulants (Megafol, Plantafol 10:54:10, Lignohumate potassium AM brand) in various phases of development of common bean plants (branching, budding, flowering), as well as the pre-sowing inoculation by nitrogen- fixing microbiological preparations (strain 700, strain 635а, strain FC-6, strain 39) a field experiment was held. In this article the scientific substantiation of the developed technological scheme of cultivation of common beans of Rubin variety is given. The most effective incentive options that meet the requirements of resourcesaving cultivation technology are identified. Pre-sowing inoculation with microbiological preparations, as well culture, and, accordingly, on the indicators of the water consumption coefficient. This was especially evident in variants with pre-sowing inoculation with microbiological preparations of stain FC-6 and stain 39 and in foliar treatment of the tank mixture of fertilizer for foliar feeding Plantafol 10:54:10 and of biostimulator Megafol, which significantly differs from the control variant.
EFFECT AND AFTEREFFECT OF APPLICATION OF FERTILIZERS AND ZEOLITE-CONTAINING BERGMEAL IN GRAIN-TILLAGE LINK ON THE LIGHT GREY FOREST SOIL IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHUVASH REPUBLIC
Authors: Ivan P. Eliseev; Leonid G. Shashkarov; Vladislav L. Dimitriev;
Structure analysis of acreage of tilled crops cultivated in the Chuvash Republic over the past decade revealed dynamic changes in cultivated crops. Changes in the structure of crop acreage were caused by weather and socioeconomic conditions of this period. However, despite these changes, tilled crops, remain an important component in providing food and creating a solid fodder base for the agricultural sector. When cultivating tilled crops in excess of the soil fertility level, there is an acute need for effective use of both organic and mineral fertilizers, as well as soil amendments of sorption type. The research was conducted in 2012–2015 on light gray forest soils in the crop rotation link: winter wheat – tilled crops – barley. The research objects were tilled crops: potato varieties Nevskiy; fodder beet varieties Ekkendorfskaya yellow and barley varieties El’f. As an untraditional organic fertilizer, a hoof-and-horn meal was introduced, as a sorption- type soil amendment - zeolite-containing bergmeal together with phosphate-potassium fertilizers. The joint application of hoof-and-horn meal and bergmeal on the background of phosphate-potassium mineral fertilizers had a significant increase in comparison with the variant of joint application of bergmeal and ammonium nitrate, both on fodder beet and on potatoes. It was revealed that the application of hoof-and-horn meal under favorable weather conditions enhances the biological activity of the soil, contributes to the reduction of nitrates in roots and tubers, increases the dry matter and sugar content in roots, dry matter and starch in potato tubers. Economic and energy assessment, and evaluation of productivity in cultivating tilled crops allow us to conclude that their effectiveness is rather high not only in the year of application, but also in the aftereffect on barley.
INFLUENCE OF GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE PRODUCTIVITY OF SOYBEAN IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CHUVASH REPUBLIC
Authors: Lyudmila V. Eliseeva; Olga V. Kayukova; Olga P. Nesterova;
To increase the acreage of valuable legumes and oilseeds soybean, it is necessary to implement agricultural practices that promote its earlier ripening and increase plant productivity. The aim of the research is to study the effect of growth regulators Epin extra and Albite on the formation of yield in the conditions of the Chuvash Republic. The object of research was the variety of soybean of SibNIIK 315, these growth regulators used for pre-sowing seed treatment. Growth regulators Epin extra and Albite contributed to the emergence of sprouts in 2–4 days earlier than the control, flowering began 3–4 days earlier, and, in general, their use accelerated the soybean ripening, so the vegetative period decreased by 5–7 days compared to control and averaged 97–102 days. The height of soybean plants differed little in variants, on average for two years in the control it was 63 cm, in the variant with Epin extra – 65.9 cm, with Albite – 67.8 cm. The lower bean was formed at the height of 11.8–14.1 cm. In 2015 more productive beans were formed on plants, than in 2016. The studied growth regulators had a significant impact on the productivity of soybean. In both years of research they contributed to a significant yield increase. In 2015, seed treatment with Epin extra increased the yield by 7 %, with Albite by 13.2 %. In 2016, the maximum yield was obtained in the variant with seed treatment with Albit and amounted to 5.29 t/ha, which is 28.7 % higher than in controls, and 18.1 % higher than the variant with Epin extra treatment.
EFFECTIVENESS OF LONG SYSTEMATIC FERTILIZER APPLICATION IN FIELD CROP ROTATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL
Authors: Sergei A. Zamyatin; Raisiya B. Maximova; Alexandra Yu. Efimova;
Correct application of mineral fertilizers provides an increase in productivity, improving the quality of products. The conditions for plant nutrition in soil depend on the doses, timing and methods of fertilization. For the effectiveness of mineral fertilizers, in case of its long-term use, a detailed, systematic study of soils and their impact on yields and on the plant resistance is necessary. The search for environmentally friendly ways, increasing crop yields and improving the quality of products, is an important scientific and practical task of modern agriculture. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of long-term use of mineral fertilizers on the productivity of six-field crop rotations with different grain crops saturation. During the long-term experiments, the effect of mineral fertilizers on the fertility of sod-podzolic medium-loamy soil and on the productivity of crops of six-field crop rotation was studied. As a result of the research it was established that the use of mineral fertilizers in the field crop rotations at a dose of N60P60K60 in relation to the variants without fertilizers contributed to an increase in yield by 24.6–37.8 %, fodder units by 17.7–35.8 %, collection of dry matter by 15,.4–33.8 %, exchange energy by 16.5–35.2 %, regardless of the degree of saturation of grain agrophytocenosis. The application of mineral fertilizers in field crop rotation contributed to a significant increase in the yield of field crops, which confirms the high responsiveness of crop rotation to mineral fertilizers. It should be noted that the crop rotation with the least grain saturation is more responsive to the use of mineral fertilizers: an increase in the yield per hectare of crop rotation area was 11.2–16.0 % compared to the variant without fertilizers. Long-term use of mineral fertilizers for all crop rotations increased the yield of feed units by 20 % in comparison with the natural fertility of the soil.
VALUABLE FOR BREEDING SAMPLES OF SPRING SOFT WHEAT
Authors: Inga Yu. Ivanova; Svetlana V. Il’ina;
Today in the State Register of selection achievements of the Russian Federation there are more than 200 varieties of spring soft wheat, approved for use. The spread of a wide range of wheat varieties in Russia is the result of different climatic and soil conditions of the country. But, unfortunately, the yield and grain quality of this important food crop in the regions of cultivation are subject to sharp fluctuations depending on weather conditions. There is a lack of adaptive capacity and a significant variability of crop yields. In the Chuvash ARI work on the study and selection of varieties with high adaptability and stable yields for use in breeding for the creation of universal varieties of spring soft wheat, in climatic and natural conditions of the Volga-Vyatka region. The study of varieties and selection of genotypes optimally adapted to local climatic conditions is an objective necessity for the creation of universal varieties in the region. Among the components determining the success of breeding work, a special place is occupied by the source material – its availability and the degree of study on economically valuable traits. The article presents the results of evaluation of varieties and variety-samples of spring soft wheat of various ecological and geographical origin for resistance to major diseases, characteristic to the conditions of the region for 2014–2017. According to the results of the research it is established that the highest grain yield in combination with resistance to diseases in the field conditions of the Chuvash Republic is formed by such varieties of spring soft wheat as Seanse, Arkhat, Ekada 113, which can be used in the creation of varieties in the Volga-Vyatka region.
PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF ROOT SYSTEMS IN CEREAL CROPS BREEDING FOR ABIOTIC RESISTANCE
Authors: Eugene M. Lisitsyn;
Increasing of resistance to abiotic stresses is one of the important tasks in breeding activity. Aim of the work is to evaluate suitability of morphological-and-physiological traits of plant root system for breeding for abiotic resistance. Twenty-one samples of spring barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.) were studied. As a stressor 1 mM of aluminum sulphate was used. Resistance level was estimated by relative root length (RRL, ratio of root length in test to control) and mass ratio of roots to shoots (root-to-shoot ratio, RSR). Oxidizing root activity and transpiration intensity of leaves were determined in terms of root mass. RRL changed from 76.8 % (line 177-07) up to 93.4 % (Sunshine variety) and had 6.2 % level of variation. Relative index RSR varied from 83.5 (line 177-07) up to 121.9 % (Persey variety), coefficient of variation – 13.4 %. Relative oxidizing activity changed from 69.1 (line 33-11) up to 13.2 % (Sunshine variety), coefficient of variation – 17 %. Relative transpiration intensity varied from 43.8 (line 484-09) up to 198.0 % (line 52-12), coefficient of variation – 39.8 %. For evaluation of integral level of resistance, relative levels of development of all parameters were summed up. More resistant genotype has lower total deviation of relative parameters from 100 %. For example, in Odessky 22 variety (in %): deviation in RRL (100 – 93.2) = 6.8; in RSR (103.1 – 100) = 3.1; in oxidizing activity (101.8 – 100) = 1.8; in transpiration intensity (100 – 83.1) = 16.9. Total index: 6.8 + 3.1 + 1.8 + 16.9 = 28.6 %. The second way of the data use is cluster analysis. The studied set of barley genotypes was divided into three clusters taking into account all four traits. To increase the level of stress resistance, it is necessary to cross genotypes from different clusters. So, all four traits of resistance may be used simultaneously for evaluation of total index of resistance in studied samples, as well as for their joining into clusters by similarity in reaction to stress.
STUDY OF THE AIR FLOW PARAMETERS IN THE CLEANING CHAMBER OF A COMBINE HARVESTER
Authors: Andrei V. Mayorov; Nikolai V. Yanukov; Dar'ya V. Lukina; Aleksandr I. Volkov;
Within the framework of this article, the parameters of the air flow in the cavity of the cleaning chamber of a combine harvester with the use of experimental and standard sieves are analyzed. The task in this case was to determine the nature of the dependence of the air flow on changes in the gap between the combs of the upper louvre sieve. The study evaluated the magnitude and direction of the key vector of the air flow, as well as its elements. In the process of testing the cleanings in combines, measurements were made of the air flow speed over the sieves. Dynamic head was measured over the sieve with the help of Pitot tubes at 6 points in terms of length, within each section at a distance of 50 mm from the axes of fixing the louvre. In the process of cleaning with a standard sieve with the value of the gap between the combs of the upper louvre sieve of Svr = 7...13 mm, the speed index is practically constant, and in the case of Svr > 13 mm, the speed starts to constantly decrease from 4 to 2,50 m/s. The indicated regularity in the change of the speed index for standard sieves, undoubtedly, has a negative impact on the allocation of grain. Indeed, in the case of increasing the delivery volume of the straw heap, the size of the gap Svr between the blinds is expanded, in order to reduce the static resistance of the network. Nevertheless, with an increase in Svp, the airflow velocity and its loosening effect on the heap decrease. Accordingly, one of the reasons for the active increase in grain losses in chaff, in the case of increased supply of the straw heap is a decrease in the function ν (Svr). Under the influence of the vertical component of the velocity and oscillations of the sieves, the heap layer is transformed into a fluidized state, the value of the frictional force between the particles decreases, so that the process of grain passage through the layer is facilitated. The increase in Svr between the combs of the standard sieves causes a reduction in the velocity at the exit from it, and due to the latter there is insufficient loosening of the heap.
THE INFLUENCE OF ORGANO-MINERAL FERTILIZERS ON THE SOIL MICROFLORA
Authors: Olga G. Mar’ina-Chermnykh; Maxim E. Toimetov;
Introduction. An important component of the soil is microflora, as the soil is not chemical or material substance, so it is biological and biochemical system. Soil microflora has a huge impact on fertility. For the modification of its composition and the growth of beneficial microorganisms, a variety of fertilizers, crop rotation, biologically active substances, etc are used. The number and activity of the soil microflora is also strongly influenced by organo-mineral fertilizers. Activating soil microflora and participating in processes of the involvement of nutrients to it, organo-mineral fertilizers are a great supporter of the biological activity of the soil and the source of energy. At the same time they accelerate humification, enriching the soil with humus and increasing the population of beneficial microorganisms. Objective: to study the effect of organomineral fertilizer on the micromycete composition of the soil and determine the place of phytopathogenic fungi in it. Materials and methods. The studies were conducted by model experience, the object of study – the soil of a barley field and organo-mineral fertilizer – ekoorganika, introduced into it according to the scheme. The results of the discussion. Soil microflora is actively involved in the modification of organic matter and has the greatest impact on its phytosanitary status and fertility. The proportion of phytopathogenic micromycetes inhabiting the soil of the barley fields amounted to 21.4 %, with a predominance of representatives of the genus Fusarium, saprotrophs – 53.7 %, and antagonists – 24.9 %. The numerical and species composition of micromycete populations, depending on the application of organo-mineral fertilizer showed changes in the number of micromycete fungi and significantly affected the fertility of the soil. Conclusion. When organo-mineral fertilizer (ekoorganika) is introduced into the soil, the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms decreases 3 times and the number of antagonists Trichoderma lignorum increases 4 times.
THE YIELD FORMATION OF EARLY RIPENING POTATO VARIETIES WHEN USING GROWTH STIMULANTS
Authors: Galina I. Pashkova; Albert N. Kuz’minykh;
Increasing the yield and improving the quality of crop production is the main task of plant growing. Potato, being an irreplaceable food product of the majority of the population, occupies one of the leading places among crops [2; 3; 4]. It is the early ripening varieties of potatoes, which give earlier yields, acquire a special popularity among agricultural producers. It is known that the use of growth regulators can influence the growth and development of plants. Studies on the use of Epin extra and Zircon preparations on potato plantings were conducted at the experimental plot of the Mari State University. Preparations Epin extra and Zircon, the active ingredient of which is isolated from natural raw materials, protect the treated crops from the negative effects of the environment, by increasing the resistance of the culture to them. Epin extra-analogue of natural phytohormone epibrassinolide, first isolated from the pollen of oilseed rape. The mechanism of its action is to regulate the synthesis by the plant itself of other phytohormones-auxins, gibberellins, cytokinins, abscisic acid and ethylene. Zircon is a mixture of hydroxycinnamic acids isolated from the medicinal plant of Echinacea purpurea. The growthregulating effect of the preparation is associated with activation of auxin by inhibiting the enzyme auxin oxidase . Foliar treatment of potato plantings in phases: shoots and budding with growth stimulants contributed to an increase in the yield of early-ripening potato variety Udacha. The greatest increase in control for two years of research was with the application of Epin extra and amounted to 1.9 tons per hectare. Growth stimulants also contributed to the improvement of the quality of potato tubers. When using growth stimulants during the potato growing season, the dry matter content in tubers increased by 2.3–2.6 %, and starch by 0.7–1.3 %.
THE INFLUENCE OF MOTHERS ON PRODUCTIVE LONGEVITY OF COWS
Authors: Svetlana V. Titova;
Lifelong milk yield and productive longevity of cows is the most important breeding feature that has a hereditary basis and depends both on the father, and on the mother. The aim of the research was to study the influence of mothers on the productive long-term use of dairy cows of black-and-white breed. The research was carried out by analysing the dataof breeding records of the retired cows of black-and-white breed in the conditions of breeding plant “Semenovsky” of the Republic of Mari El. It is found that the daughters with reliable difference, surpassed their mothers on milk yield on average for all lactation on 1357 kg (28.8 %) for the first lactation on 1090 kg (24.4 %), on lifetime milk yield on 6923 kg (31.2 %), the number of milk fat, respectively, by 53.8 kg (30.2 %); 43.2 kg (25.6 %); 209 kg (36.0 %). It is revealed that with increase of milk yield for the 1st lactation in mothers, increases the milk yield of the daughters – heifers. High yield (6345 kg) showed daughters from highly productive mothers with milk yield more than 7001 kg, low yield (5769 kg) was observed in daughters, from mothers with low productivity (4000 kg of milk). Comparative assessment of couples “mother – daughter” within the analyzed groups showed that by the yield of milk of the 1st lactation, daughters surpassed their mothers by 25–2089 kg of milk (0.4–56.8 %), in terms of lifetime productivity by 3911–15041 kg (30.2–134.1 %). The daughters of highly productive cows-mothers are more productive in comparison with their peers. For 305 days of first lactation they surpassed their peers from mothers with low milk yield by 576 kg (10 %). A positive correlation was established between the level of productivity of mothers in the 1st lactation with milk yield of the daughters – heifers (r = 0.175) and a negative one with the period of productive use (r = –0.240) and the value of lifetime milk yield (r = –0.213). The effect of level of milk yield of mothers at 1st lactation on the lifetime milk yield and on the productive longevity of daughters was 8.0 and 8.4 %.
THE USE OF IMMUNOGENETICS IN SELECTION OF DAIRY HERD OF THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL
Authors: Lyudmila V. Kholodova; Klavdija S. Novoselova;
Immunogenetic testing of cattle in the Republic of Mari El is conducted from the late 80s – 90s of the last century. Currently, 4575 tested cows of black-and-white breed are producing in the herds of the republic, in which 76 antigens belonging to 9 blood group systems were detected. The most widespread system of blood groups of cattle in the republic is the EAB system. Analyzing the frequency of distribution of erythrocytes of blood groups in the areas of the republic, it was established that in such regions as Volzhsky, Gorno-Mariyskiy, Mari-Tureksky, Orshansky and Novo-Tor'yal'skiy, animals have similar antigenic composition. The frequency of distribution of antigens in the blood of cows in these areas isn’t significantly different. The animals of these regions differ slightly from the animals of Medvedevskiy, Morkinskiy and Sovetskiy regions. The dairy productivity of animals is controlled by a huge number of genes. Part of the genome encodes animal blood antigens. Analyzing the correlation of red blood cell antigens with the milk efficiency of cows of black-and-white breed in the republic, antigens associated with both increase and decrease in the level of milk efficiency were identified. In the course of research markers of the increased dairy efficiency – stimulants and markers of the reduced dairy efficiency – repressor were revealed. Most often antigens-stimulants meet at the cattle bred in the farms of Gorno-Mariyskiy, Orshansky and Morkinsky regions. Thus, the use of data of immunogenetic monitoring at all stages of selection is not only possible, but is also proved. It’s necessary when characterizing animal populations, including their new breeding forms and also at improving the dairy herd of the republic. This will shorten the timing of the creation of new highly productive animal genotypes.
EXAMINATION OF MEAT OF DOMESTIC AND WILD ANIMALS
Authors: Elena V. Tsaregorodtseva; Tatiana V. Kabanova;
Since ancient times, the Mari people consider dishes made of elk and wild boar to be a national product. The emblem of Mari El is not in vain decorated with the image of an elk – they have always been found in the Mari forests. And for today the number of elks in the republic is about 6604, the wild boars is about 1119 heads (Smirnov S. Mari El conducted animal census // news from 28.03.2018. URL: https://potokmedia.ru/news/39473/). Despite the fact that since ancient times people have been eating wild animals, systematic, purposeful study of their meat has not been conducted until recently.The purpose of the research was to conduct a veterinary and sanitary examination of wild animal’s meat: elk and wild boar and to study its organoleptic, structural and mechanical characteristics and chemical composition in comparison with meat obtained from domesticated animals: beef and pork. Research of samples of meat of wild and domestic animals included microscopy of bacterioscopic samples for establishing veterinary and sanitary safety of meat, photometry of extracts from meat to establish the fractional composition and mass fraction of proteins, assessment of organoleptic characteristics and morphological composition, rheological examination of muscles. The veterinary and sanitary examination confirmed the high quality of samples and their food safety. Meat of wild animals has a darker color, which is due to the content of more sarcoplasmic protein myoglobin, responsible for the color of meat. Well-developed muscle tissue of wild animals is rich in full-fledged myofibrillar proteins and contains fewer inferior connective tissue proteins compared to beef and fat compared to pork. Structural and mechanical properties of the meat of elk and wild boar confirmed the greater strength of muscle fibers in terms of adhesion, limiting shear stress and viscosity of minced meat in comparison with meat of domestic animals. Conducted research of meat of different kinds confirmed the safety of samples for the consumer in terms of the level of sanitary condition, rheological expertise and high-grade protein composition.
ECOLOGICAL STABILITY OF VARIETIES AND BREEDING LINES OF SPRING BARLEY
Authors: Irina N. Shchennikova; Larisa P. Kokina; Irina Yu. Zaitseva;
environmental factors. Creation of such agroecologically targeted varieties is an important task of breeding. The article presents the results of long-term study in competitive variety testing of 8 varieties and 8 breeding lines of spring barley selected in Federal Agricultural Research Center of North-East (Kirov). The aim of the studies was to determine the ecological stability of varieties and perspective breeding lines of spring barley in different environment conditions. As a result of the research, varietal specificity of the reaction to the change of climatic conditions was shown. Assessment in years differing in climatic conditions, allowed to revealed significant differences in the yeild of the studied genotypes. It was established that the variation of the yield of modern varieties was mainly determined by ecological factors, and the share of genotypic influence on this variability is significantly lower, which accordingly reduces the level of ecological reliability of new barley varieties. This fact confirms the relevance of studies on the creation and selection within existed varieties those ones having lower responce to changes in vegetation conditions. As a result of conducted studies the ranking of varieties and lines on productivity in favorable and stressful growing conditions is presented.The lowest variation of productivity by years was observed in varieties Forward, Novichok, Rodnik Prikam’ya and other, breeding lines 29-11, 53-08, 383-10, and 346-09. High ecological stability of the varieties Rodnik Prikam’ya and Forsazh, breeding lines 29-11, 53-08, 383-10, and 346-09 was established. The obtained data allow to recommend the wider use of selected barley varieties in plant industry, and the preparation of perspective breeding lines for transferring on State Varietal Test.
ORGANIZATION OF AUTOMATED CLOTHING ACCOUNTING IN THE TROOPS OF THE NATIONAL GUARD WITH THE USE OF CONTROL IDENTIFICATION MARKS
Authors: Anatoly N. Zhiznevsky; Artur K. Kurbanov;
Introduction. Analysis of the conditions and results of the functioning of the system of clothing supply in the troops of the National Guard (TNG RF, Russian Guard) shows that the order of organization of accounting and reporting based on the use of paper data carriers at all stages of movement of clothing items: from its production to issuance to personnel, is not sufficiently effective, both from operational and economic positions. At the same time, the accuracy of the accounting data entering the control bodies depends largely on the human factor. The purpose of the research: substantiation of the use of a new method of accounting the movement of clothing items in the material support system of the Russian Guard on the basis of modern technologies. Materials and methods. In the course of the study, the authors analyzed the works of foreign authors devoted to radio frequency identification technology and the experience of using radio frequency tags in logistic systems, as well as dissertations of domestic scientists in the field of military Economics and material and technical support of military consumers. The system method and the elements of mass service theory were used to model the processes of automated accounting of clothing. Results of the study, discussion. In the article the scheme of application of radio frequency tags for maintenance of functioning of the system of accounting, reporting and statistics on the availability, movement and requirements for material means is presented, the model of the operational accounting system of material means is proposed, it will allow to increase the effectiveness of the accounting system of clothing. During the discussion of the provisions of the work during the scientific and practical conferences, most of the specialists of the clothing supply of various military organizations expressed their interest and recognized the validity of the need to develop and introduce a new method of accounting, using radio frequency identification technology. Conclusion: thus, conditions are created for the formation of an automated (information) management system of clothing supply of military consumers; significantly increases the accuracy and quality of accounting, increases labor productivity of logisticians, and reduces the costs of military organization.
BASIC ASPECTS OF IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF SOCIAL ENTERPRENEURSHIP ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SYSTEM OF THE REGION
Authors: Anna V. Lisevich; Natalya F. Ogneva;
Social entrepreneurship in the Russian Federation is a sphere of entrepreneurial activity that functions in the legal field of the business industry, but at the same time the importance of this sphere for the development of the social environment has already been determined. However, the category “meaning” is mainly reflected in the context of the terms “large” and “significant”. The methodology for assessing the impact of social entrepreneurship on the development of the socio-economic system of macro- and meso levels is currently not available. This is associated with a number of structural problems: the lack of methodology and statistical data; legislative restrictions expressed in the absence of a clear formulation of the notion of “social entrepreneurship” and, as a consequence, public misunderstanding of what business objects may be attributed to the sphere of social entrepreneurship. Based on the identified problems, the authors propose a methodology for accounting and analysis of social entrepreneurship objects, as well as determining the degree of their influence on the development of the socio-economic system on the basis the development of scientists from the Kaliningrad State Technical University, the online interactive laboratory NBICS.NET, the technological solution in the “Situation Center” allowing to collect, analyze, represent and transmit data in various formats (different data structures). The presented technological solution can be implemented on the basis of the Entrepreneurship Support Fund of the Kaliningrad Region.
ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF MANAGER TRAINING
Authors: Alexey I. Tikhonov; Marina A. Fedotova; Anna A. Chekan;
The article is devoted to the features of training of managers. The main methods of research are the analysis of research literature, methods of management theory, organization theory. The authors came to the conclusion that at present the most common mistake that is made in the organization of manager training is the isolation of the training program from the general concept of business development and daily work of the company. The carried-out analysis showed that effective training of heads in the organization is possible only in the case of thorough identification of its characteristics and the formation of a system for training managers. Feature of training of managers: allocation of target personal budgets for development to heads; development of special programs taking into account individual tasks of development of the organization and the head; justification of the training schedule taking into account annual load of the head; confidential character of programs for a number of heads; combination of social and economic methods of an assessment of results with elements of the «principle of 360». Development programs for the manager, as a rule, have a multi-faceted nature, both in the content of materials and in the form of training. So, the content of the program is often formed by the modular type, including the required materials, trainings, internships. It actively uses on-the-job training, participation in important business processes of the organization and immersion in processes that require development, external internships, distance learning is less used. Evaluation of the effectiveness of training is associated with the selection of appropriate parameters. Thus, their justification should combine expert and computational methods, take into account the economic and social aspects of evaluation (and their relationship). It is possible to allocate the following directions for evaluating the training of managers: assessment of the use of budget for training and development of managers; assessment of the results of work with the reserve of leading cadres; assessment of labor productivity imptovement; selfassessment and evaluation of colleagues.
THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF DEPRESSIVE TERRITORIES
UDC: 338; 348; 631
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin;
Introduction. Depressive territories of Russia are problematic regions, which are characterized by a complex socio-economic situation due to a complex of unfavorable factors. The basis of degradation, as a rule, is the bankruptcy of system-forming industrial enterprises, mass unemployment, decline of infrastructure. However, it should be noted that there are quite a lot of regions with similar problems in the country, including small towns and rural areas, where at least 20 % of the population lives. State programs are aimed at the revival of the territories through the restoration of existing or development of promising specialization. It is important to support the existing business environment, identify individual conditions and factors that allow you to create a system of targeted support for enterprises with different activities. Purpose: to consider the impact of agricultural enterprises on the socio-economic development of depressed areas of Russia on the example of the Republic of Tuva, to identify promising areas and forms of state support. Materials and methods. Comparative, formal-logical, statistical data analysis, system and situational approaches. The results of the study, discussion. Research suggests that regions with weak industry have the potential for effective agricultural activities and production of high-quality food products, as a favorable environment, infrastructure, undeveloped areas allow to create the necessary business environment. The main element is agricultural enterprises, on the basis of which it is possible to develop the specialization of the subject of the Russian Federation, to attract qualified personnel, to increase incomes and communications. Despite the fact that the Republic of Tuva has all the necessary conditions for the development of agricultural specialization, there are not so many enterprises of this type of activity, due to limited sales, unfavorable working conditions, low mechanization of production processes. Conclusion. Depressed regions need comprehensive state support. Tuva Republic has the necessary potential for the development of agriculture, therefore it is expedient to implement systematic measures to introduce innovative and digital technologies, contributing to the quality of work and an increase in the attractiveness of occupations among the local population; the effective marketing policy and the creation of logistical trade channels with neighbouring regions; intelligent systems in crop production, specially applied in the regions of the country.