Current issue

VESTNIK 4 (32) 2022
Date publication on the site:
2023-01-11 11:04:01
Full journal in PDF:
Veterinary and sanitary examination of pig meat when adding the mineral supplement Polymin to the diet
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Ali Kh. Volkov; Ellada K. Рapunidi; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
Introduction. Grain feeds that are used in feeding pigs are not able to provide the body with the necessary amount of vitamins and minerals. For this purpose, mineral and vitamin supplements, as well as premixes, are used. In many countries, a large number of organizations produce feed additives that contain amino acids, vitamins, mineral elements and many other biologically active substances. Most studies of domestic and foreign scientists show that feed additives increase the productivity of pigs and improve the quality of meat. The purpose of this work was to study the effect of the new feed additive Polymin on veterinary and sanitary indicators of the quality of pig meat. Materials and methods. Scientific and production experiment was conducted on the basis of a pig farm on large white breed pigs, which were divided into 3 groups of 18 heads each. The duration of the experiment was 131 days. The first group was the control. The second group received 1.5 kg of Polymin per 1 ton of feed with the main diet. The third group received Polymin at the rate of 3 kg per 1 ton of feed. After the completion of the experiment, 5 piglets from each group were slaughtered. Veterinary and sanitary examination of slaughter products was carried out according to the Rules of veterinary inspection of slaughter animals and veterinary and sanitary examination of meat and meat products. Results and discussion. The average daily growth of piglets of the experimental groups was 10.2‒13.64 % higher compared to the control. Organoleptic analysis of pig carcasses revealed no differences between the experimental and control groups. During the tasting evaluation of the meat, it was found that in the experimental groups there was an improvement in the appearance, aroma, and taste of the broth. When conducting physico-chemical studies of meat, it was found that the level of hydrogen ions (pH) in the meat of the experimental and control groups after 24 hours was in the range of 5.44±0.30 ‒ 5.51±0.12; the reaction to peroxidase was positive, and with a solution of copper sulfate was negative. Conclusion. The mineral feed additive for pigs Polymin does not cause pathological changes and improves the quality of slaughter products according to organoleptic, physico-chemical and bacte-riological indicators, which meets the requirements of GOST for good-quality meat.
The effect of immunomodulators on functional parameters of the immune system of pigs
UDC: 619:616.61:616.155.194
Authors: Olga A. Gracheva; Damir R. Amirov; Zulfiya M. Zukhrabova; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
Introduction. Technologies for raising and keeping pigs are aimed at obtaining maximum productivity of animals, which leads to a complication of the interaction between the animal’s body and the environment, as a re-sult of which homeostasis disorders may occur. A large number of studies by foreign and domestic authors show that biological stimulants activate the body’s reserves, improve growth and development, and increase resistance to diseases. Of greatest interest are drugs of natural origin with a stimulating effect. The purpose of the research was to study the effect of immunomodulatory drugs Ribotan, Immunoferon and Dostim on the immune system of sows and their offspring. Materials and methods. The experiments were conducted on 20 sows of a large white breed, which were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals each. The first group served as a control. The second group was intramuscularly injected 3 times with an interval of 5 days with the immunomodulator Ribotan at a dose of 5 ml per animal. The third group was injected subcutaneously with the drug Immunoferon 2 times after 48 hours at a dose of fifty thousand IU. Animals of the fourth group were injected with Dostim 3 times after 3 days at a dose of 2 ml intramuscularly. On days 5, 10 and 15, blood was taken for analysis: total protein, lymphocytes, leukocytes, globulins, IgA, IgM, IgG. Results and discussion. The number of segmented, rod-shaped, young neutrophils and lymphocytes in the blood of pigs of the experimental groups increased. The level of immunoglobulins A, M and G significantly increased in pigs in the group where Dostim was used. In all experimental groups of newborn piglets, an increase in natural resistance was expressed, as indicated by an increase in the phagocytic activity of neutrophils and lysozyme activity of blood serum. When using drugs to sows, in piglets of the weaning period the histological picture of the thymus changes towards an increase in the area of the cortical substance and an increase in the number of mature thymocytes. Conclusion. Based on the results obtained, it is proposed to use the drugs Ribotan, Immunoferon and Dostim in animals with immunodeficiency of an immunomodulatory nature. In case of immune system disorders, it is possible to obtain young animals with higher viability if the immune system of pigs in a state of pregnancy is affected.
An effective way to increase the yield and improve the quality of spring wheat grain
UDC: 633.11"321"
Authors: Faina I. Gryazina; Natalya O. Burova;
Introduction. Grain production is the most important task in the development of agriculture. The development and improvement of agrotechnical methods of cultivation technology is an ongoing process that correlates with the biological characteristics and zonal conditions of crop cultivation. Soil fertility is another of the most important factors that ensure stable crop yields. In our studies, the forecrop of spring wheat were green manure crops of narrow-leaved lupine and vetch-oat mixture. One of the cheap sources of soil organic matter replenishment is cereal straw. Materials and methods. Field experiments were carried out according to the scheme: 1 ‒ winter rye, without fertilizers (control); 2 ‒ green manure lupine fallow; 3 ‒ green manure vetch-oat fallow; 4 ‒ winter rye + application of N77-90, P29-34 K10-14, calculated to obtain the planned yield of 3 t/ha; 5 ‒ winter rye + application of chopped winter rye straw for fertilizer with the introduction of a compensating dose of nitrogen. Results and discussion. All studied factors led to a significant increase in yield compared to the control variant. On av-erage, over 3 years of research, the maximum yield was obtained for lupine fallow (3.03 t/ha) and with the appli-cation of calculated doses of mineral fertilizers by 3 t/ha (2.8 t/ha). The results of the research showed an improvement in the main flour-grinding and baking properties of spring wheat grain when applying mineral fertilizers and using vetch-oat and lupine sideration. The incorporation of green manure into the soil had a positive effect on the biological activity and structural composition of the soil. Conclusion. The incorporation of 45–64 t/ha of narrow-leaved lupine green mass and 32–44 t/ha of vetch-oat mixture into sod-podzolic medium loamy soil leads not only to a significant increase in yield and improvement in the quality of spring wheat grain, but also improves the structural composition of the soil.
Study of the effect of different doses of ultraviolet radiation on the red blood cells of white rats
UDC: 576(045)
Authors: Natalia A. Dudenkova; Olga S. Shubina;
Introduction. Ultraviolet radiation is an area of electromagnetic radiation that is not perceived by the eye, occupying the middle range between visible and X–ray radiation. Scientists and doctors have proven that UV radiation in moderate doses has a fairly positive effect on the human and animal body, as well as on their health. However, it has not yet been clarified how the ultraviolet radiation itself affects individual structural components of the blood, and, in particular, red blood cells. It is not clear at what doses of ultraviolet radiation irreversible changes in these structural components of blood occur. The purpose of the research is to study the effect of different doses of ultraviolet radiation on the blood erythrocytes of white rats. Materials and methods. The material of the study was the blood of animals taken from the aorta of the heart with a syringe with the anticoagulant heparin (30 IU/ml of blood). The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the blood erythrocytes of white rats was studied for a different duration of exposure time (180 seconds, 480 seconds and 600 seconds). In addition to studying the morphological characteristics of erythrocytes before and after the experiment, a morphological measurement of the diameter of the cells themselves was also carried out. We also studied the change in the concentration of erythrocytes in the blood of experimental animals using an automatic cell counter Countess™ (Invitrogen, USA). Research results, discussion. Short-term exposure to ultraviolet radiation leads to minor changes in the morphometric parameters of red blood cells, as well as their concentration of 1 ml of blood, which may be a protective response of the body to external influences. A longer exposure to long-wave ultraviolet radiation negatively affects red blood cells, which in the future can lead to adverse consequences throughout the body as blood flows through all organs and tissues of the body. An increase in the concentration of red blood cells in 1 ml of blood and their size can cause clots and blockages in the smallest vessels, and, in the future, can lead to their damage and ruptur.
Veterinary and sanitary assessment of quail meat when using whole grain amaranth flour and Bifitrilak MK feed mixture in their diet
UDC: 636.59:616-091.0
Authors: Irina I. Strelnikova; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Andrey V. Onegov;
Introduction. In our country, since 2014, an import substitution program has been actively carried out, while the opening of small poultry farms is becoming relevant. Recently, novice poultry farmers are increasingly giving preference to quail breeding. This bird is popular not only because of the dietary orientation of the products, but also due to its dynamic growth and good immunity. However, due to their fast metabolism, quails must extract all the necessary nutrients from the feed in order to develop properly and obtain high-quality products from them. That is why their feed is additionally enriched with natural biologically active substances. One of them is the amaranth forage crop, known for its high quality protein with a complete amino acid composition. We have staged a scientific and economic experience in the peasant farm of Alimchueva Z. I., located on the territory of the Republic of Mari El. Materials and methods. We have put scientific and economic experiment in Z. I. Alimchuyeva’s farm, located on the territory of the Republic of Mari El.The research material was the quail of the Texas breed, from which three groups of 50 heads each were formed. The feeding ration of the control group corresponded to the feeding scheme on the farm, while in the experimental groups part of the diet was to be replaced with whole grain amaranth flour: in the 1st group – 5 %, in the 2nd – 10 %. An additional condition of the experiment was the addition of the Bifitrilak MK feed mixture to the diet of the experimental groups in order to increase the digestibility of the feed components. This supplement was administered for five days on the 1st and 4th week of the experiment. When conducting a veterinary and sanitary examination of quail car-casses, generally accepted research methods were used. Research results. As a result, it was determined that the joint introduction of whole grain amaranth flour and Bifitrilak MK into the diet does not have a negative impact on the quality characteristics of the resulting products. All obtained meat samples were classified as benign and safe for the consumer.
The effect of vegetable fats on the viscosity of sour cream
UDC: 637.053
Authors: Lilia M. Sufyanova; Tatyana V. Kabanova; Elena G. Shuvalova;
Introduction. Currently, in order to reduce the cost of dairy products, manufacturers are developing milk-containing products with the addition of ingredients of non-dairy origin. Sour cream is a product with a high fat content, so manufacturers have not bypassed it. On the shelves of the store, you can notice the appearance of products called “sour cream product” or “product made using sour cream technology”. Most often in such products, there is a partial replacement of milk fat with vegetable fat. For the first time, the term “sour cream product” was introduced by GOST R 51917-2002. The Sour cream products have valuable properties for producers and a number of consumers: they have lower calorie content, lower cost, and longer shelf life. However, there is not enough information about the effect of vegetable fats on the rheological parameters of the sour cream product. Based on the above, this area of research is of interest. The purpose of the article is to determine the changes in the viscosity of sour cream and sour cream product depending on the use of milk fat substitutes. Materials and meth-ods. The objects of the study were two samples of sour cream and one sample of sour cream product with milk fat substitutes. The viscosity of the products was studied on a Brookfield rotary viscometer, at different spindle speeds. In addition, samples were compared by acidity and fat mass fraction. The results of the study. During the study, it was revealed that the sample of sour cream product had a more viscous consistency than sour cream samples produced according to GOST. This dependence is explained by the fact that in the production of sour cream products, stabilizers are used to obtain a homogeneous mixture (consisting of a dairy component and vegetable fats), which increase their viscosity. Conclusions. Based on the results of the experiments, it can be concluded that the sample of sour cream product had a more viscous consistency compared to the samples of sour cream. In addition, in the sample of the sour cream product the acidity was lower, which has a positive effect on the safety of the product.
Zootechnical and economic indicators of fattening broiler chickens with the use of fat emulsifier
UDC: 636.52/.58.087.7
Authors: Natalya I. Tikhonova; Vladimir A. Galkin; Natalya V. Vorobyeva; Vitaly A. Namestnikov;
Introduction. The article examines the effect of the Lipid Forte emulsifier in diets on the productivity of broiler chickens and the economic efficiency of poultry meat production. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of the Lipid Forte emulsifier on the meat productivity of broiler chickens and the economic efficiency of poultry meat production in industrial production. Objects and methods of research. The research was carried out in the conditions of the AO “Lindovskaya Poultry Farm – Breeding Plant”, located in the Linda village, Borsky District, Nizhny Novgorod Region. Ross PM3 cross broiler chickens treated with Lipid Forte supplement as part of dry full-length feed at different feeding periods were selected as the test subject. The studies were carried out by the generally accepted zootechnical method – pairs of analogues. During the study, the farm was safe for infectious and invasive diseases. Statistical data processing was performed using Microsoft Excel-365 program. The determination of the validity of the correlation coefficient was determined by the Student's criterion. Research results, discussion. With the same density of stocking of day-old chickens in a cage (44 heads), the safety was 95.37 % in the experimental group, and 95.62 % in the control group. The average daily gain in live weight in the experimental group was – 60.8 g, and in the control group – 59.56 g. Live weight at slaughter in 38 days in the experimental group was 2350 g, and in the control group – 2303 g. Despite the fact that feed costs for an increase of 1 kg of live weight in the experimental group were slightly higher (by 0.02 kg), and amounted to 1.81 kg, the cost of 1 kg of feed in the experimental group was lower by 653 rubles/t. Conclusion. Thanks to the Lipid Forte emulsifier introduced into the diet, it was possible to increase the live weight of Ross PM3 cross broiler chickens in the experimental group, reduce the cost of 1 ton of feed, and ensure a complete economic effect in the production cycle.
The effect of lead intoxication on the hematoplacental barrier of white rats
UDC: 576(045)
Authors: Olga S. Shubina; Natalia A. Dudenkova;
Introduction. The issue of the spread and influence of heavy metals on humans and animals is widely discussed. Among heavy metals, lead is the most common in the environment and causes a number of structural physiological and biochemical changes in humans and animals. The mechanism of lead penetration through the hematoplacental barrier is poorly understood. Studies revealing the influence of lead on ultrastructural changes of the placenta are not enough. The purpose of the research was to study ultrastructural rearrangements of the hematoplacental barrier of the placenta of a white rat during lead acetate intoxication. Materials and methods. The experiment involved 40 pregnant female Wistar rats, which were divided into two equal groups. Group I (females with physiological pregnancy) was on a standard vivarium regimen, while the rats of the group II received lead acetate orally daily at a dose of 45 mg/kg of animal weight for 14 days. The placenta served as the research material. For ultrastructural examination, fragments of the placenta were cut out, and then fixed in 2.5 % glutaraldehyde on 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH =7.2). Semi-thin media colored with toluidine blue were prepared for the survey photos. Electronic microcoping was performed using an EM-125 microscope. The results of the study and their discussion. As studies have shown, the effect of lead salts on the animal body led to pronounced changes in giant cells, the intermediate zone, cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast of the beams of the labyrinth zone, fetal vessels of the placenta. In the area of the hematoplacental barrier, the changes were expressed by: thinning of the cyto- and syncytiotrophoblast, and as a consequence, the approach of the blood vessels of the labyrinth to the edge of the trophoblastic beam; enlightenment and vacuolization of the cytoplasmic matrix, destruction of mitochondrial crysts, membranes of the endoplasmic network; reduction of intercellular contacts between cyto- and syncytiotrophoblastic elements, the presence of zones with deposition of osmophilic formations. Conclusion. The noted ultrastructural changes can be considered specific for lead intoxication, are dose-dependent and lead to placental insufficiency.
Veterinary and sanitary assessment of broiler chicken meat when using feed probiotics in the diet
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Leysan F. Yakupova; Ellada K. Рapunidi; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
Introduction. In order to increase the production of poultry meat and reduce its cost, it is necessary to introduce advanced scientific achievements into production. The main factor affecting the productivity of birds is high-grade and good-quality feeding, which is achieved by adding biologically active substances to the diet. One of which is probiotics and prebiotics, which are widely used not only for the prevention of various diseases, but also for stimulating growth. Studies show that probiotics are widely used in poultry farming both as a biological regulator of metabolism in the poultry body and as productivity stimulants. If microbiological feed additives have been used for a long time, then living microorganisms began to be used relatively recently. The purpose of this work was to study the veterinary and sanitary indicators of broiler slaughter products when adding Royal Feed E-500 and Bioside feed probiotics to the diet. Materials and methods. The production experiment was carried out on 3 groups of one-day broiler chickens with 50 heads in each group. The first group received the Royal Feed E-500 probiotic with a diet at the rate of 4 % of the main diet, the second group received Bioside at the rate of 2.5 % of the main diet. The third group served as a control and was kept on a diet adopted by the farm. At the end of the experiment, the birds were slaughtered and the examination was carried out according to the Rules of veterinary and sanitary examination of meat. Results and discussion. On day 42, the live weight gain was higher in the experimental groups compared to the control by 2.52−3.7 %. During external examination of internal organs, pathological changes were not found in both experimental and control groups. In the experimental and control groups, the content of toxic elements, radionuclides, pesticides did not exceed MAL. During tasting assessment of the juiciness, aroma, tenderness and taste of the broth from poultry meat of the experimental groups, the scores were higher compared to the control. During microbiological studies, it was found that the pectoral muscles of all groups of broiler chickens were contaminated to a lesser extent than the femoral ones. Conclusion. Probiotic preparations Royal Feed E-500 and Bioside for broiler chickens does not cause pathological changes and improves the quality of slaughter products according to organoleptic, physico-chemical and bacteriological indicators, which meets the requirements of GOST for good-quality meat.
Comparability of the accounting and management balance sheet
UDC: 330.1(075.8)
Authors: Asiyat I. Adzhieva; Soltan R. Khasanov;
Introduction. The balance sheet shows the structure of assets and liabilities of the company. This form allows you to link the indicators of the reports on the movement of money and financial results. The purpose of the study is to substantiate the need for separate maintenance of the management balance sheet. The research uses methods of comparison, system analysis, and analytical evaluation. The main form of management reporting is the balance sheet. Here, too, you can not “reinvent the wheel”, but take as a basis a stand-ard form approved by the Ministry of Finance. The management balance sheet is a report designed to analyze the financial condition of an enterprise with the control of the balance of assets and liabilities. The indicators of the report are the items of assets and liabilities. The management and accounting balance sheets differ in the degree of detail of the information provided. Management accounting is not involved in the relationship between business and the state, it is an internal tool of the enterprise. And it doesn't reflect the numbers that someone wants to see, only the ones that actually exist. From the management balance sheet, one can understand the financial stability and liquidity of companies and enterprises. Research results, discussion. Maintaining the management balance sheet will allow the financial director to promptly provide information to the management and at the same time do it in a transparent and understandable form to the manag-er. It is possible to plan the management balance sheet for future periods, since it is interrelated with the profit and loss statement and the cash flow statement in a similar way to accounting statements.
Trends in the development of the labor market and employment of the agricultural sector in Russia
UDC: 338; 631
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin;
Introduction. The coronavirus pandemic has had a strong impact on various socio-economic processes, significantly changing some of them. The inability to continue business in many areas of production and services has changed the balance of supply and demand in the labor markets, contributed to the introduction of new forms and methods of employment in a remote format. A different situation was observed in the subjects of the Russian Federation: an increase in unemployment in some segments and a short-age of personnel in others, which was due to migration processes and trends in local labor markets. There were also some jumps in prices for construction and agricultural products. Job cuts affected the most affected sectors of the economy, while the deficit was recorded in the most difficult unskilled types of work. The purpose of the work is to assess and analyze the dynamics of the agricultural labor market in the regions, to identify and characterize the main trends, taking into account the territorial factors of influence and the existing industry specialization. Materials and methods. Statistical analysis, system, situational, network approaches, modeling of socio-economic processes of digital transformation of agriculture. Research results, discussions: 1) analysis and assessment of trends in the labor market and employment of the agricultural sector of Russia; 2) comparative analysis of labor market indicators of the agricultural sector. Conclusion. A comparative analysis of the labor market of the agricultural sector has shown that the trends are multidirectional, partly due to intersectoral competition for labor, high rates of development of other types of economic activity.
Authors: Sergey I. Novoselov;
2022 год – это год 50-летия высшего агрономического образования в Республике Марий Эл. Подготовка кадров специальности 1502 ‒ Агрономия началось с открытия Марийского государственного университета и сельскохозяйственного факультета. Официально, согласно приказу Министерства высшего и среднего специального образования РСФСР № 191 от 04.05.1971 г., Марийский государственный университет был открыт с 1 апреля 1972 года. Согласно Приказу Министерства высшего и среднего специального образования РСФСР № 513 от 17.12.1971 г. при Марийском государственном университете был открыт сельскохозяйственный факультет. Открытие сельскохозяйственного факультета было обусловлено необходимостью подготовки специалистов для интенсивно развивающегося в то время агропромышленного комплекса республики. Именно поэтому была всесторонняя поддержка в открытии Марийского государственного университета и сельскохозяйственного факультета Областным комитетом КПСС, и его первым секретарем В. П. Никоновым. Он отмечал, что открытие университета в республике состоялось благодаря включению в его состав сельскохозяйственного факультета. На сельскохозяйственном факультете первоначально готовили выпускников по специальностям: 1502 – Агрономия, 1506 – Зоотехния, 1715 – Экономика и организация сельского хозяйства по очной и заочной формам обучения. Официальное открытие Марийского государственного университета состоялось 25 ноября 1972 г. на торжественном собрании коллектива университета, руководства и общественности республики, представителей МВ и ССО РСФСР.