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VESTNIK 1(13) 2018
Date publication on the site:
2018-04-04 14:08:51
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UDC: 597.554
Authors: Alexandr I. Bogachev;
Currently, only about 72–75 % of the deficit of domestic food fish protein is covered by domestic supplies. The food safety threshold for fish products in the Doctrine of Food Security of the Russian Federation is set at 80 %. The norms of rational consumption of fish and fish products established by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation are 22 kilograms per year. Actual consumption on average per capita decreased from 24,8 kg/person in 2013 to 19 kg/person in 2016. As a result, the urgency of the development of fisheries is growing. The aim of the study is to analyze the state of the Russian fisheries complex and to determine its contribution to ensuring Russia's food security. Fish products are an important source of nutrition and protein. Currently, fish account for about 17 % of animal protein in the diet of the world's population and 6,7 % of the total protein consumed. The greatest potential for increasing the volume of its production is associated with the development of aquaculture. The possibilities for increasing the catch are limited due to the gradual depletion of aquatic biological resources, since about 30 % of the world's commercial fish stocks are currently re-caught and are at a biologically unstable level. The author makes a conclusion about the insufficient degree of development of domestic fish culture and its non-compliance with natural opportunities. The aquaculture sector accounts for only 4 % of the total Russian catch of aquatic biological resources. The significant fisheries fund of Russia, a wide range of artificial breeding sites, create significant potential for the development of aquaculture. The paper concludes that there is a need for further development of Russian fish farming. The development of aquaculture will allow expanding the range of fish products at affordable prices, increasing its consumption by the population, increasing the employment of the population, developing small and medium-sized businesses directly in the regions of Russia, and increasing the efficiency of using the country's water fund of Russia, and increasing the efficiency of using the country's water fund.
UDC: 373
Authors: Denis V. Bochkov;
The relevance of the material presented in the article is conditioned by the requirements of the Government of the Russian Federation: the involvement of the public in the process of management and the formation of resource support, including the financing of social sector organizations, through the partnership of the state and private entities. In the framework of the theoretical study, the main goal was realized: to find new mechanisms that allow financing social institutions at the level of municipalities on the basis of private-state partnership. The article describes common approaches to the organization of publicprivate partnership mechanisms at the level of the regional education system. The existing mechanisms of organization of such relations are considered and analyzed, the current assessment is given, the opportunities offered by societies from the standpoint of existing normative and legal acts based on the budget code of the Russian Federation are analyzed, the advantages and risks in the management of the financial resources of educational organizations in new conditions based on mechanisms public-private partnership are studied. As an optimal mechanism in the organization of resource support for social sector organizations at the level of municipalities, the idea of introducing management companies into the system is justified. The justification of the idea of introducing management companies in the management system of educational organizations is given. In particular, on the example of the education system, the leaders of educational organizations were offered an algorithm for implementing the idea of attracting management companies in resolving the issues of resource provision for general education organizations, their concentration in the hands of professionals in addressing issues not only of a pedagogical nature but also of the economics of an educational organization. The pros and cons of implementing this mechanism in the social sector are analyzed. Actions are proposed to reduce the negative consequences and strengthen the positive impact of the mechanism on resource provision.
UDC: 330.3
Authors: Oleg E. Gordienov;
This article is devoted to the study of the positive and negative aspects of the impact of consumer lending on the development of retail trade. The ultimate goal is to identify the quantitative relationship of these economic categories in a particular region. Statistical materials of the state statistics bodies and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation for the period 2000–2015 were used for the study. The object of the study was the Kaliningrad region. Initially, we examined the dynamics of the development of the retail trade in the Kaliningrad region, including a cut for the food and non-food segments. The main areas and forms of consumer lending in retail trade are indicated. The possibilities and threats of using consumer credit in retail trade are systematized based on the study of author's sources. The modern problem of crediting the population of the region and the country is revealed. A correlation analysis of the relationship between the volume of consumer lending and retail trade in non-food goods of the Kaliningrad region at the prices of 2015, including in the upswing and in the phase of the decline in retail trade, was performed. The key conclusion of the study was that in the phase of economic growth the correlation of the categories under study is very close: the increase in the volume of issuing consumer loans increases the turnover of retail trade. On the contrary, in the phase of decline, the correlation of the studied categories is weak, which indicates that the situation is unregulated. Consequently, we need further analysis with the involvement of additional, conjugate indicators. In our opinion, the development and solution of a multifactor model is required, in which the resulting variable will be the retail trade turnover, and factors, along with the volumes of consumer crediting, the income of the population, the structure of the economy and others.
UDC: 339.137.2
Authors: Roman Yu. Emadakov;
Introduction. The study of enterprise competitiveness is a separate big topic, the development of which provides an understanding of the dialectics of interconnection and interdependence of the competitiveness of products and enterprises. The purpose is to analyze and to systematize the factors shaping the competitiveness of the enterprise. Materials and methods. The research is carried out within the framework of system-dialectical methodology. The main research technique is a monographic description with subsequent analysis and synthesis, on the basis of which the author's own assumptions and proposals are formed. Results, discussion. The system of the factors influencing formation of competitiveness of the enterprise is considered. The definition of “enterprise competitiveness” is specified. The characteristic of competitiveness of the enterprise as an integral parameter in the system of management of functioning and development of the enterprise is given. The ratio of competitiveness of production and competitiveness of the enterprise is defined. The structural model of levels of formation of competitiveness of the enterprise is presented. In this article the offered system of factors of formation of competitiveness of the enterprise is given in the supplemented and processed form in comparison with the previous publications. In addition, the characteristics and author's vision of the influence of individual groups of factors are given. An initial view of structural model of levels of formation of competitiveness of the enterprise is formed, connecting the proposed system of factors of formation of competitiveness of the enterprise with the theory of competitive advantages by M. Porter. Some new generalizations and conclusions characterizing “competitiveness of the enterprise” as an economic category are carried out. Conclusion. Management of competitiveness of the enterprise integrates all set of the factors influencing activity of the enterprise and its results. Enterprise competitiveness should be seen as a comprehensive description of the enterprise's ability to respond to changes in the market situation and use these changes to create competitive advantages. The purpose of managing the competitiveness of the enterprise, therefore, is to ensure a long-term, stable position of the enterprise in the market.
UDC: 330
Authors: Tatyana A. Ignasheva;
The article is devoted to the study of indicators of the level of economic activity of the population of the region, which justify the state of the labor market from the standpoint of its stability and organic development in the current market economy. When choosing the ways of forming the labor market, one should proceed from the need to study and analyze the internal patterns inherent in the development of employment and remaining in a market economy, since many factors that affect the most important parameters of employment depend directly on the person. This approach served as a basis for developing a methodology for analyzing the current state of the labor market. Based on the statistical data of the State statistics service for the Republic of Mari El, which characterize the economic activity of labor resources of Mari El in a spatial and temporal context, the methodology for assessing the functioning of the labor market as a whole for the region and for individual municipalities has been developed and tested. The dynamics of the levels of economic activity of the population and unemployment has been studied, the regression model of the impact of socioeconomic factors on the size of the population's economic activity has been proposed, forecast ARIMA-models of employment and unemployment in the region have been constructed. Analysis of the proposed models allows us to conclude that an important principle from the standpoint of ensuring employment of the population in the stabilization of the economy is to find a compromise between economic and social results. The developed methodology can be used in the practical activities of the state employment service of the Republic of Mari El to develop a management strategy and forecast the dynamics of economic activity of the population. In the future, it is possible to expand the arsenal of statistical methods used by applying methods to reduce the dimensionality of the analyzed feature space and to confirm the stability of the results obtained on the basis of modeling the integral indicators that characterize the labor market.
UDC: 336.226
Authors: Nadezhda V. Kurochkina; Ramziya K. Shakirova;
Introduction. Agriculture – one of the largest sectors of the economies of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), consisting of a multitude of organizations and peasant farmers who sell standardized products and ensuring food security. However, as a result of the rapid growth of prices for resources, disparity of prices for agricultural products, which leads to non-profitability of agricultural production, outdated material and technical base of this industry requires additional state support. One of the most important measures of state support for agrarian production by the states of the CIS countries was the introduction of taxation systems for agricultural commodity producers. Purpose. The purpose of the study is to summarize the experience of applying the taxation system for agricultural producers in the CIS countries to assess the possibility of adapting the best practice of applying its application to the Russian Federation. Materials and methods. With the help of empirical methods of cognition, special taxation regimes for agricultural producers used in the CIS countries have been studied. Results, discussion. The definition of the taxation system for agricultural producers is clarified, similarities and differences, advantages and disadvantages of the tax legislation of the Russian Federation and the CIS countries concerning the taxation system for agricultural producers, are revealed, a comparative description of the main elements of the taxation of the single agricultural tax is given, recommendations for improving the provisions of Russian legislation in terms of applying the tax system for agricultural producers taking into account the experience of the CIS countries are given. Conclusion. The provisions of the tax legislation of the Russian Federation, as well as the provisions of the tax legislation of other CIS countries in the field of applying the tax system for agricultural producers have both their advantages and their shortcomings, which can be eliminated by using and adapting to their economic conditions the best provisions of each of these laws in the process of further reforming the taxation system for agricultural producers.
UDC: 338;348;631
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin; Zhanna A. Mingaleva;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the study of food sovereignty as an important strategy of the state in modern conditions. Crisis periods at different historical stages of developed countries contributed to the evolution of the concept of food sovereignty and security. International experience offers the examples of effective food market regulation, sustainable solutions that promote progress in agricultural production and improved food quality. Many prosperous countries, to which the USA and China should be included, put the food security strategy at the basis of providing food to the needy strata of the population, as well as the quantitative and qualitative parameters of supplying the territories and regions with food products. The international experience is useful for Russia because it contains solutions that have no analogues in the subjects, but which could be adapted based on the specifics of agriculture in areas with different climatic, infrastructure and financial potential. The objective is to review the main directions of strengthening the food sovereignty of regions on the basis of domestic and foreign experience of management of agriculture. Materials and methods are regional statistics, comparative, formal logical, analysis of statistical data. The results of the study discussion. Various interpretations of the concepts of food independence and food security are considered; the experience of the US and China in the field of strengthening food security has been studied. On the example of the Perm Krai, Tula and Vladimir regions, the state of food security and its separate areas was examined. The main problems of these territories include the complex socioeconomic situation of small towns, which consists in the outflow of the able-bodied part of the population and a low standard of living. However, these areas present the potential to produce quality food products and create environmentally friendly technologies. Conclusion. A package of measures is needed that covers state investments in agriculture, food quality control, support of agricultural producers.
UDC: 338
Authors: Artem Igorevich Poverinov ; Sergey Viktorovich Kunev ;
можно сделать вывод, что в агрессивной конку- рентной среде внедрение стандарта GMP может отрицательно сказаться на большом количестве предприятий отечественной фарминдустрии.
UDC: 657
Authors: Mariya V. Stafievskaya;
Nowadays, a real tool for making a profit is investment in agribusiness. The primary importance has been given to agricultural producers, but the regulatory framework for accounting is not improving on the proper level. Since 2003, there have been no adjustments to the calculation of the cost of agricultural products, cost management. In agribusiness, the success of an enterprise is determined by the level of its competitiveness and labor resources. The price of production is determined by the costs of its production, on the basis of which the profit of the enterprise depends. If there is profit, then there is every reason for growth, which means that the development condition is the successful management of production costs, which emphasizes the relevance of the study. The purpose of the research is to develop a methodology for reflecting the risks of agribusiness as accounting objects. By the method of analysis of the break-even production on the example of a specific agricultural producer, the article consistently reveals the mechanism for determining the actual cost of grain crops. The author shows a model, based on which, the agricultural producer can make a decision on managing the cost, the volume of realization, the price. The inclusion in the cost of risks is justified. Scientific novelty consists in developing a scheme for risk classification for agribusiness enterprises. This scheme was developed with a view to subsequent accounting of risks on the off-balance account in the context of the proposed sub-accounts. The methodology of risk reflection in management accounting, financial reporting is offered. In conclusion, it was concluded that the use of the proposed methodology will allow for timely taking into account the assumed risks in the cost of agricultural products. The subsequent reflection of the recorded risks in the financial statements, in the form proposed by the author, will increase its transparency to attract investors.
UDC: 336.2
Authors: Ramziya K. Shakirova; Sherali H. Mahmudov;
Introduction. The tax system of the state is the most important element of the market economy, constantly in a dynamic state. The concept of “tax system” has an ambiguous interpretation. In practice, a narrow interpretation of this term is more often used. Usually, the tax system is considered as a set of taxes and fees established by the state and levied for the purpose of forming the country's budget. Comparative analysis of tax systems of different countries makes it possible to find options for optimizing the system of tax payments in order to ensure an effective interrelation between the public and private interests of organizations and individuals. Purpose. The main objective of the study is to identify opportunities for optimizing the structure of the system of tax payments of the Russian Federation on the basis of a comparative characteristic of the overall structure of the system of taxes, fees, tax regimes of the Russian Federation and the Republic of Tajikistan. Materials and methods. The work was carried out using the methods of scientific abstraction and system analysis. The set of general formal-logical methods and methods is used: analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, comparison. Of the most active, the graphical method (tables, figures) was used most actively, and the statistical method was used to a lesser degree. Results, discussion. The main result of the work is the comparative characterization of the structure of tax payments in Russia and Tajikistan, in addition, an analysis of the conceptual apparatus in the relevant part has been carried out, a set of tax payments has been compared separately for their types. Conclusion. The most important task of the modern state is the adoption of decisions on the optimization of the structure of tax payments, taking into account the external and internal conditions of socio-economic development and the experience of foreign countries. For the Russian Federation, it is expedient to transform the system of tax payments, which could help achieve parity between public and private interests in tax relations.
UDC: 635.649
Authors: Anastasia N. Bondarenko; Natalia V. Tutuma; Oksana V. Kostyrenko;
The most promising development direction in crop production is the use of biological agents and plant growth stimulants. The main objective of the research was to develop science-based parameters of cultivation of pumpkin varieties based on the optimization of the level of mineral nutrition and application of growth stimulators. Experience in cultivating various varieties of pumpkin was laid with drip irrigation in light chestnut solonetsous soils of the Astrakhan region during 2016–2017. To accomplish the tasks assigned, field surveys were conducted, as well as observations and measurements using various techniques such as B. A. Dospekhov's field experience method, G. F. Nikitenko's method of piloting in crop production, the technique in vegetable growing and melongrowing by V. F. Belik. For the first time in a twofactor field experiment, the techniques of foliar treatment with stimulants against the background of the introduction of mineral fertilizers under conditions of drip irrigation were worked out. The results for the cultivation of different varieties of pumpkin show the high efficiency of combined application of growth stimulators and various levels of mineral nutrition on the formation of commercial products that substantially affected the ratio of consumption of the target culture. The ratio of water consumption in the study varied options from 74,7 to 443 m3/t. The results obtained in the study on cultivation of pumpkins on the background of the introduction of different norms of mineral fertilizers in combination with foliar (leaf) treatments revealed a high yield indices on the options N110P105K75 + Megafol and N110P105K75 + Vitasym varieties of Yellow from Paris and Amazonka. Biological yield varied considerably for the options study from 14,7 to 79,2 t/ha, the marketable yield from 12,0 to 74,7 t/ha. Absolutely 100 % marketability was observed in Dynia and Amazonka varieties of pumpkin, i. e. indicators of biological yield and commercial yield are the same on all options for study.
UDC: 636.5033:636.034
Authors: Leonid S. Kudryashov; Olga A. Kudryashova; Vladimir A. Zabiyakin; Tatyana V. Zabiyakina;
Guinea fowl meat has high nutrition value for providing of an organism in pro-teins, lipids, mineral substances and vitamins. The research of nutritional and biological value of guinea fowl meat is aimed at revealing the merits and demerits of keeping a bird in conditions of small flocks. The chemical characteristics of the different varieties of meat are also detailed, including the mass fraction of protein on a dry basis in pectoral muscles is 80,80–85,57 %, in femoral muscles – 83,66–86,56 %.; the mass fraction of fat on a dry basis in pectoral muscles are 15,19 % at the Volga-white breed, 9,56 % at the Blue breed and 10,00 % at Gray-speckled breed of guinea fowl. High dietary qualities of meat can be demonstrated by low mass fraction of fat in muscles. Amino-acid structure has shown that the largest specific weight is the share of replaceable amino acids such as, for instance glutamate, aspartate and glycine. The largest content of irreplaceable amino acids is the share of a lysine and a leucine. Differences between pectoral and femoral muscles of guinea fowls are revealed concerning share of irreplaceable amino acid of methionine to replaceable amino acids of arginine and aspartate. The ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in pectoral muscle’s lipids are 1,69 : 1 for Volga-white breed, 1,68 : 1 for Blue breed, 1,69 : 1 for Gray-speckled breed. Muscles of Blue breed guinea fowls differed in the low content of zinc. Muscles of Volga-white breed differed in a large content of copper. Finally, meat of guinea fowls possesses higher strength characteristics than meat of broiler chicken. There are not statistically significant differences of structural and mechanical properties between pectoral and femoral muscles of guinea fowls of the studied groups. Comparative characteristic of the color coordinates of meat has shown that broiler meat is lighter than guinea fowl meat.
UDC: 633.11
Authors: Vladimir A. Maksimov; Rimma I. Zolotareva;
In the Republic of Mari El, the winter wedge is more than 30% in the structure of grain crops. The rye is a very plastic crop. It can grow in a variety of soil and climatic conditions. Valuable properties of rye, which allowed to promote its cultivation far to the North – is the ability to grow at a minimum temperature, withstand severe frosts, pour the grain at low temperatures. However, in order to obtain high harvest of rye, it is necessary to create appropriate conditions, in accordance with its biological needs. The aim of the field experiment was to study the adaptability of new and promising sorts of rye for the conditions of the Republic of Mari El against the background of different levels and options for the use of nitrogen fertilizers aimed at significantly increasing harvest, improving the phytosanitary condition of crops and seeds, and the consumer properties of grain. The achievement of the purpose and solution of tasks carried out by setting three-factor (sort, base fertilizer, application of nitrogen fertilizing) field experience. In terms of 2015–2017 for grain productivity grade Rada surpassed zoned sort Tatyana subjects and varieties of rye from different breeding centers. The main application contributed to the increase in the harvest of the rye varieties by 17,6 %. Introduction of nitrogen fertilizing also increased the productivity of winter rye by 0,9; 0,5; 1,2 t/ha, respectively to the areas N45, N15, N45 + N15, regardless of grade. Among the 4 varieties of the rye in the content of crude protein a significant increase of 0,9 % in relation to the control grade was given by the Moskovskaya 15 variety. He main application (factor B) contributed to the increase of crude protein by 18,8 % on average for all varieties. The introduction of nitrogen fertilizing was accompanied by an increase in the content of crude protein in the rye grain, a significant excess was observed only against the background of N45 + N15 by 0,93 %, compared with the version without the using of nitrogen fertilizing. The content of starch among the sorts of the rye by the factor A (variety) and the application of nitrogen fertilization (factor C) credible excess is not revealed. By factor B (main application) the introduction of azofosk fertilizer at a dose of 1. 5 t/ha contributed to a significant increase in this indicator by 3,2 % on average for all varieties. Thus, the results of a two-year study established that the main criterion for increasing grain productivity and grain quality of the rye are varieties, using of seed and application of azofosk fertilizer in a dose of 1,5 kg/ha and split application of nitrogen fertilization.
UDC: 631.582
Authors: Olga G. Marina-Chermnykh;
Introduction. The phytosanitary condition of the field agro-ecosystems under different tillage, the presence of plant organic matter plays in modern technologies contributing factor productivity of agricultural crops. Functional role of tillage and organic matter in the optimization of agrocenosis phytosanitary field is the level of environmental performance and efficiency in the formula of the relationships between “plant – pathogen”. System of agrotechnical methods with tillage and application of organic mass of vegetable matter gives a positive assessment of the productivity of the crop, not the implementation of basic techniques to optimize the phytosanitary soil creates the conditions for the destruction of natural complexes of arable soils. At the same time, the decline in soil fertility and the formation of beneficial microflora occurs. Strong driving force of biological function of agricultural technologies is crop rotation, which affects the soil fertility. The location of leguminous crops in crop rotation has a positive effect not only on yield but also on the biological activity of the soil. Objective. To study the phytosanitary state of arable soils and the productivity of field crop rotations depending on soil cultivation and the use of mulch in conditions of Mari El. Materials and methods. The objects of study within three years were shestibalny field crop rotations with various saturation by grain crops. Crop rotation was introduced in one field with a crop rotation in time. The soil of experimental plot is sod-podzolic middle-loamy, typical for the area of Mari El. The results of the discussion. Optimization of phytosanitary condition of soil in crop rotation substantially affected by tillage and post-harvest straw mulching, helping to reduce the defeat of root rot and increased grain yield by 0,55 to 1,18 t/ha. the cultivation of legumes in crop rotation reduced the infective potential of the soil is 1,3–2,6 times and increased the value of the environmental indicator. Conclusion. Agro-technical method with the use of biotechnology contributes to the preservation and reproduction of soil fertility, increase crop yields.
UDC: 633.2.038
Authors: Ludmila P. Rybashlykova; Svetlana N. Sivceva;
Introduction. As a result of the introduction, the selection of high-yielding species and varieties of forage plants was carried out to create highly productive pasture land, possessing ecological plasticity, resistant to diseases and pests, capable of withstanding high operational loads in the arid zone of the South of Russia. Purpose. The aim of the research was to study the species and varieties of perennial grasses pasture, their physiological characteristics, resistance to abiotic, competitive and operational stress for use in restoration of pasture land. Materials and methods. An experimental site with monocomponent crops of perennial grasses of winter type of development was laid for research. Method of sowing perennial grasses is solid, broad-row 45 and 70 cm. The determination of the productivity of forage grasses was carried out by a three-fold repetition method with 1 m2. The nutritional value of forage grasses was determined by chemical analysis in the laboratory. Results. The phytomass of perennial grasses varied according to the type of plants, the method of sowing and the phase of vegetation. The highest yield of phytomass was obtained on 3–5 year life when in wide method of sowing. Despite the decline in productivity of phytomass for the sixth and subsequent years the yield of forage mass remained high compared to control. The average yield for 13 years was as follows: Wheatgrass elongated (Stavropolsky –10) – 8,3–12,4 t/ha, wheatgrass elongated (Solonchakovy) – 8,3–11,5 t/ha, Siberian wheatgrass (Novator) – 4,5–6,0 t/ha, wheatgrass medium (Stavropolsky – 1) – 7,4–8,7 t/ha and awnless brome (Vegur) – 5,5–9,4 t/ha and awnless brome (Stavropolsky – 35) and wheagrass comb (Vikrav) for continuous crops with 3,8–6,6 t/ha. Conclusion. Introduced fodder grasses can grow and provide high sustainable yields for 10–13 years with nutritional value corresponding to zootechnical requirements.
UDC: 635.21
Authors: Elena Yu. Udalova; Olga G. Marina-Chermnykh;
This article focuses on the most effective methods of protective measures of the potato, aimed at the formation of potato tubers to obtain a higher yield with good quality characteristics. The purpose of this study was to improve the system of protective measures against diseases based on preplant treatment of tubers and plant treatment of potatoes for the growing season. The field experience held in 2017 in the seed crop rotation experimental field of the Mari research Institute of agriculture. Bookmark experience, tests, records and observations were conducted according to methodical instructions. The task of the experiment included evaluation of disinfectants and fungicides on the yield and quality of tubers. Statistical data processing was carried out in accordance with the experimental methods. In our research we studied the efficacy of preplant treatment of tubers with the following compounds: Maxim – 0,4 l/t; and Fitosporin – 1 l/t and triple treatment of potato plants in the growing season. It is established in the field experience that this measure allows to get good shoots, creates the best phytoclimate for the growth and development of plants and favors the accumulation of tuber mass. The best option is the one where the tubers were treated before planting with Maxim fungicide with a rate of 0,4 l/t and a three-fold spraying of potato fungicides on vegetation of potato plants (Metaxil – 2,5 kg/ha, Ridomil – 2,5 kg/ha, Ordan – 2,5 kg/ha). The yield of potato tubers in it was 11,7 t / ha. Biological preparations had no significant effect on the formation of the potato crop, because of unfavorable weather conditions.