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Title:
VESTNIK 4(16) 2018
Number:
4
Year:
2018
Date publication on the site:
2019-01-10 13:19:12
Full journal in PDF:
WILD SPECIMENS OF SIBERIAN WILDRYE IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL YAKUTIA ALAS
UDC: 633.262/29
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Valentina I. Alekseeva;
Introduction. Natural populations of forage grasses of Yakutia are sources for breeding to create highly adaptable varieties of perennial grasses. Local wild-growing ecotypes are used as donors of high winter hardiness, drought resistance and salt tolerance. The article presents the results of studying in collection nurseries of wild specimens of siberian wildrye on the creation of a new adapted hay type variety of use in the conditions of the alas ecosystem of the Leno-Amginsky interfluve of Central Yakutia. Purpose. The aim of the research is to assess and select local wild-growing specimens of siberian wildrye in the conditions of the Leno-Amginsky interfluve for a set of economically valuable traits and properties to create a new adapted variety. Materials and methods. The studies were carried out in different weather conditions of the growing seasons of 2008–2011 years, under harsh conditions of wintering, on the frozen pale yellow medium loamy soil of the Churapchinsky agricultural landscape of the Leno- Amginsky interfluve of Central Yakutia. 43 local wild specimens of siberian wildrye were studied. Standard - zoned variety Amginsky. Sowing was carried out in the summer – July 2, 2008. Plot area is 1.5 m2. Evaluation and selection of local wild-growing specimens of siberian wildrye were carried out according to winter hardiness, crude protein content, resistance to loose smut, and above-ground mass and seed yields. The results of the study showed a wide variety of wild-growing samples according to their economically important traits and properties. All samples are characterized by high winter hardiness (100 %) and crude protein content (12.8 to 20.0 %). High resistance to loose smug (10 points) was observed in 3 wild samples of KP-2-11, KP-2-77, E-76-06. According to the yield of green mass, 3 samples KP-2-7, KP-2-29, KP-2-6 were allocated, in which the excess over the standard was 26, 25 and 25 %, respectively. Samples KP-2-11, E-12-06, KP-2-6 have an excess of seed yield by 19, 13 and 12 %, respectively. Conclusion. For further breeding in the conditions of alas according to the nutritional value, resistance to loose smug and the yield of green mass and seeds, 8 promising samples of siberian wildrye were selected.
DIGITAL SCANNING AND ANALYSIS OF THE MATRIX DIVERSITY OF VEGETABLE SEEDS
UDC: 631.53.011:58.087
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Dmitry N. Baleyev; Alexander F. Bukharov; Maria I. Ivanova;
A technique developed by the authors for digital computer morphometry of vegetable seeds based on an image analysis system consisting of a flatbed scanner and software for automatic measurements is described. Studies include selection of a contrast substrate (background for seed scanning with minimal shadow effects), software calibration for binding to real dimensional quantities, selection of measurement parameters and directly automatic analysis of digital scanned images of seeds. The analysis of digital scanned images of seeds was made on the basis of the Agrophysical Research Institute using the serial software “Argus-BIO”, produced by LLC “ArgusSoft”, St. Petersburg. For automatic computer analysis of seeds, the following morphometric parameters were used: projection area (mm2), length (mm), width (mm), elongation (relative units). The experimental data on the ecological variety of vegetable bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), the matrix variety of dill seeds (Anethum graveolens L.), common parsnip (Pastinaca sativa L.) and onion of Christophe (Allium cristophii Trautv. = A. albopilosum C. H. Wright) were presented. For seeds of vegetable beans of all tested varieties, the maximum linear dimensions (length and width) were obtained in Siberia (Omsk point). Regardless of the year of reproduction, the largest projection area of dill and parsnip seeds was obtained from shoots of the first order of branching. Onion of Christophe has a tendency to reduce the size of the seeds from the lower tier – to the upper one. Experimental data on the projection, linear dimensions and the degree of their variability, obtained by digital scanning, can be used to additional characteristics of the seed lot, which should be taken into account when sorting, storing and presowing refining.
CULTIVATION EFFICIENCY OF NEW VARIETIES AND HYBRIDS OF WHITE CABBAGE IN THE MOSCOW REGION
UDC: 631.81:635.342
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Valerii A. Borisov; Ivan I. Virchenko; Anatolii F. Razin; Oleg A. Razin; Svatlana V. Taktarova; Mariya I. Ivanova;
Studies were carried out on the experimental field of the All-Russian Research Institute of Vegetable Growing - a branch of FSCVG located on alluvial meadow soils of the floodplain of the Moscow River (Ramensky district of the Moscow region). The soil is alluvial meadow, medium loamy, containing humus 3.2 %, pH 5.8–6.0, the availability of available forms of phosphorus and potassium is medium. The efficiency of cultivation of new late ripening varieties and hybrids of white cabbage of Russian and foreign selection on different backgrounds of mineral nutrition: F1 Kilaton of the Dutch selection, 4 hybrids of N. N. Timofeev breeding station (Prestige F1, Quartet F1, Orion F1, Favorite F1), 4 hybrids of joint selection of ARRIVG and Agroholding “Poisk” (Bomond Agro F1, Duchess F1, DM 2016 F1, KIM 2016 F1), hybrid (Grace F1) of All-Ruaaian Research Institute of Rice selection, 4 varieties of West Siberian EVS (Blizzard, Final, Florin and Cherkoli) 4 varieties of Primorskaya EVS (Southern, Riparian, Primorochka, Knevichanka). Fertilizers were applied at a calculated dose for a yield of 70 t/ha (N120P120K180) and in an increased rate (N180P180K270). It was revealed that new hybrids of white cabbage significantly exceed traditional varieties in productivity, they are more responsive to the use of fertilizers and have better commercial and biochemical quality indicators. The following varieties were the most responsive to the use of high doses of fertilizers: Dutch hybrid F1 Kilaton (138.3 %), hybrids of TAA selection Quarter F1 (133.9 %) and Prestige F1 (131.7 %), as well as hybrids Bomond Agro-F1 (133.9 %) and Duchess F1 (132.4 %) of the selection of Agroholding “Poisk” and the ARRIVG. With the same moderate background of white cabbage nutrition, there was no significant difference in the content of dry substances, sugars and vitamin C between varieties and hybrids, and the level of nitrate concentration is below the MPC.
INFLUENCE OF SEEDING RATE AND SOWING TIME ON THE YIELD OF ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF WHITE AND YELLOW MUSTARD
UDC: 633.853.483
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Stanislav S. Zhirnyh;
The basis for increasing the productivity and stability of arable farming is the preservation and reproduction of soil fertility. In conditions of acute shortage of organic fertilizers, one of the most effective ways of maintaining soil fertility is cultivation of crops for a green mass to plow them into the soil. As such a fertilizer, the mustard is of great interest, because it is capable of forming a high yield of green mass in a short period of vegetation. Mustard reacts strongly to changes in the nutritional area; the rate of its seeding depends on both the region of cultivation and the purpose of sowing (seeds or green mass). Most varieties of mustard are bred in the All-Russian Research Institute of Oilseeds (Krasnodar). The sowing rate of white mustard, recommended by the originators, is 7–8 kg/ha, of yellow mustard – 5–6 kg/ha (1.3–1.5 million germinable seeds/ha). Such a seeding rate in the conditions of the Udmurt Republic will be insufficient, especially when cultivated for green manure purposes. To study the effect of seeding rates and sowing time on the yield of green mass of white and yellow mustard, a field experiment was laid in 2017 on the experimental field of the Udmurt Agricultural Research Institute. The objects of research were varieties of white mustard – Raduga, yellow mustard – Nika. The sowing time – 1 (control), 2d, 3d decades of May and seeding rates – 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 (control), 3.5 and 4.0 million germinable seeds / ha (white mustard – 12–24 kg/ha, yellow mustard – 7.8–15.7 kg/ha) were studied. The obtained data showed that in the conditions of cool and rainy 2017, the sowing time had no effect on the yield of mustard green mass. The yield of green mass of white mustard was in the range of 10.52–11.62 t/ha, yellow mustard – 6.85–8.25 t/ha. The highest yield of green mass was obtained when sowing with a seeding rate of 3.0, 3.5 and 4.0 million germinable seeds/ha, in white mustard it was 11.62–11.88 t/ha, yellow mustard – 7.89–8.50 t/ha.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT DYNAMICS OF SUDAN GRASS VARIETIES
UDC: 633.282:631.524.824:58.01/.07
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Natal'ya A. Kovtunova; Andrei V. Alabushev; Аleksandr Е. Romanyukin; Еlena А. Shishova;
Introduction. Plant growth and development are vitally important processes in the yield formation. Purpose: to reveal growth dynamics of Sudan grass, its dependence on environmental factors and varietal features. Materials and methods. The study was conducted on the experimental plot of the ARC “Donskoy” (Zernograd, Rostov region) in 2015–2017. The soil of the region is carbonate heavy loam blacksoil (chernozem). Four Sudan grass varieties Aleksandrina (as a standard variety), Anastasiya, Alisa and Gratsiya of the ARC “Donskoy” selection were used as the objects of study. Study results, discussion. The analysis of plant height change during the vegetation period showed that the largest increase of plant height took place in the period of “30 days after sprouting – earing”. Later, plant growth significantly decreased and was 10.9–17.0 cm or 4.1–7.9 %. After ‘milkywax ripeness’ phase the plant height did not change. By the end of vegetation period (in the phase of “complete ripeness”) the varieties Aleksandrina and Anastasiya were the highest with 262.5 cm and 245.8 cm of height respectively. The new varieties Gratsiya and Alisa had the height on 37.5–38.8 cm or 14.3–14.8 % less than the height of the standard variety that makes them more suitable for mechanical harvesting for seeds. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that the year of study was the main factor affecting sorghum plants height increase. The greatest influence it had at the initial period of growth: “sprouts – 30 days after sprouting” (93.9 %). Conclusion. The daily plant height increase was 2.92 cm in the period “sprouts – 30 days after sowing”; 7.18 cm in the period “30 days after sprouting – stooling phase”; 5.83 cm in the period “stooling phase – earing phase”; 0.70 cm in the period “earing phase – milky-wax ripeness”. The analysis of growth dynamics depending on the variety showed that all varieties had practically the same height by the 30th day after sprouting (174.2–187.2 cm). The correlation analysis showed that the plant height increase in the period before earing phase had a great negative correlation with an average daily air temperature (r = –0,81±0,39), but in the later periods no correlation was found. The amount of precipitation has a close positive correlation with plant height during the whole period of vegetation (r = 0,93–0,99±0,11), in the period “sprouts – 30 days after sprouting” there is no effect of the precipitation amount on plant height increase.
SELECTION OF LEGUMINOUS CROPS IN YAKUTIA
UDC: 633.31/37
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Aleksey N. Neustroev; Valentina I. Alekseeva; Ivan F. Bardeev;
Introduction. In Yakutia, there are practically no plantings of leguminous crops, the main cause of which is the lack of varieties adapted to local conditions. Purpose. The goal is to create new high-protein varieties of legumes, adapted to the harsh climatic conditions of Central Yakutia. Materials and methods. Studies were conducted on the valley side of the middle stream of the Lena River in Central Yakutia with сommon vetch (Vicia sativa L.) and field pea (Pisum sativum L.). Evaluation and selection of promising numbers in the nursery of competitive tests were carried out in accordance with the generally accepted methodology of the State Commission for the variety testing of crops. The main features of the selection of promising numbers are: early ripening, yield of green mass and seeds, the optimal height of the stem for easy harvesting. Results. Individual preselection for early ripeness was carried out on a perspective hybrid of the сommon vetch ♀Kamalinskaya 611 × ♂Tulunskaya. The selected line was multiplied and passed the evaluation in the nurseries of competitive variety testing. As a result, the early ripening, high-yielding variety of common vetch Lenskaya 15, intended for the production of high-protein succulent feed, was created and released. The variety is characterized by early ripeness – the average growing season is 67 days, the grain yield is 1.3 t/ha, green mass: 16.5 t/ha in pure form, 21.0 t/ha in a mix with oats. The crude protein content in green mass is 18.2 %. Variety refers to a type of typica, with a mass of 1000 seeds 42.2 g, the height of the plants on average is 45–60 cm, which at the beginning vegetation erect, but when pouring beans lie down. In 2016, by the method of individual selection for standing power, a determinant, leafless variety Saryal of field pea for the production of high protein concentrated feed was created and transferred to the state examination of varieties. The new variety is early ripening, resistant to lodging, dropping and cracking of beans, and has a stable grain yield – 3.0 t/ha. Conclusion. New varieties of leguminous crops are adapted to the climatic conditions of Yakutia, which makes it possible to increase the production of vegetable protein for livestock farming.
THE USE OF PROBIOTICS “SAKHABACTISUBTIL” IN THE REINDEER HUSBANDRY OF THE FAR NORTH
UDC: 636.294:619:616.9-036.22.577.27.579
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Mikhail P. Neustroev; Marfa P. Skryabina; Nadezhda P. Tarabukina; Svetlana I. Parnikova ;
Extreme conditions of keeping domestic deer cause a decrease in the immunobiological reactivity of young deer and the spread of diseases of the respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. The use of antibiotics is recommended to control the diseases and deaths of young deer. However, their negative impact on the beneficial microbiota and product quality is well known. Probiotic preparations from bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are widely used in the livestock and poultry farming. Perspective on the effectiveness of probiotics from bacteria of the genus Bacillus are not used in practice, but in reindeer husbandry there is no information about the use of bacteria strains Bacillus subtilis. Probiotic preparations from the bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are widely used in livestock and poultry farming. Prospective probiotics from bacteria of the genus Bacillus are not widely used in practice, and there is no information about the use of bacteria of strains of Bacillus subtilis in reindeer breeding. Therefore, the aim of these studies was to test the probiotic “Sakhabactisubtil”, developed by the authors from the strains of bacteria Bacillus subtilis TNP-3 and Bacillus subtilis TNP-5 to improve the safety of young deer (tugut). The experiments were carried out on young reindeer (tuguts) of Khargin breed of 1–5 days old (n = 522). Among the experimental and control groups there were 8.9–34.1 % of weak tuguts with a live weight of 5.3–5.9 kg, with signs of bronchopneumonia and gastrointestinal diseases (diarrhea). The use of the probiotic “Sakhabactisubtil” normalizes the intestinal microbiota, has a favorable effect on the blood counts and increases the resistance of newborn calves (tugut) organism, reducing the mortality to 5.14 – 6 %, when the mortality among the untreated calves is 25.0–30.0 %. The preparation can be successfully used in northern reindeer breeding to increase livestock and productivity.
THE GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF ANNUAL FORAGE CROPS IN THE EARLY YEARS OF LONG TERM STORAGE IN CRYOSTORAGE
UDC: 631.243.36
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Nadezhda N. Storozheva;
Introduction. The peoples of the north have used the cold of the permafrost to preserve food for a long time. In the second half of the twentieth century, scientists proposed to use this resource for the conservation of plant genetic resources. The aim: to study the growth and development of annual forage crops in the early years of long term storage in cryostorage. Materials and methods. In 2009, seeds of 92 varieties of agricultural crops were transferred to long-term storage from research institutes of Siberia and the Far East, including 24 samples of various annual forage crops. Research results. After 7 years of storage mutative changes in phenotypic characteristics of studied plants were not observed. All samples developed normally. Under weather conditions of vegetational season of 2016, 2 varieties of fiber flax came into maturity stage. Seeds were formed and did not ripen in all samples except for plants of Sudan grass and millet. Plant growth monitoring and structural analysis of the crop were carried out. Conclusion. After 7 years of storage in the permafrost strata, the seeds of annual forage crops are well preserved. In the development and growth of plants revealed no deviations in phenotypic parametrs. Research continues. Every five to seven years, the sowing qualities of seeds will be checked and phenological observations and biometric accounting of plants will be carried out.
THE STUDY USING CORRELATION METHOD OF THE MAIN ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS IN OATS (AVENA SATIVA L.) SELECTION IN THE CONDITIONS OF CENTRAL YAKUTIA
UDC: 633.13:631.52
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Lidia V. Petrova; Agafya Z. Platonova;
Determination of the correlation between economically valuable traits allows us to determine the relationship of yield components of the oat, which contributes to more effective implementation of the desired genotypes selection for Yakutia. Collection variety samples of oats were studied under conditions of Central Yakutia during the period of 2015–2017. The sample size was 84 accessions. The aim was to study the correlation relationships of the main economically valuable features with other features of structural analysis in the collection nurseries of oats. Materials of the study were variety samples of oats from the collection of the All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources named after N. I. Vavilov (VIR). Field experiments according to the method of B. A. Dospekhov, correlation relations by the statistical programme of O. D. Sorokin, Еxсel software package. Research results. The analysis of the relationship of economically valuable features showed that in the conditions of a short summer in Yakutia the following sings had the greatest impact on the crop yield: the mass of grain per plant and the mass of grain per panicle, regardless of the year of study. In the arid 2015 the correlation coefficient was 0,93*, and in optimally wet, moderately warm 2016 and 2017, the correlation coefficient was 0.53* and 0.83*, which means reliability of the selection on the basis of grain weight per plant for an arid region in conditions of insufficient moisture. The collection variety samples showed a positive correlation between the yield and the number of grains per panicle by year: correlation coefficient in arid 2015 r = 0.72*, in optimally wet 2016 r = 0.67*, in moderately wet 2017 r = 0.64*. Also, the grain yield is affected by the number of spikelets in the panicle: in 2015 r = 0.71, in 2017 r = 0.70, and in 2016 r = 0.56. Conclusion. A reliable sign of selection for the yield of oats in Yakutia, regardless of the year of cultivation, is the number of grains from the panicle, the mass of grain from the panicle, the number of spikelets in the panicle.
EFFECT OF COMPLEX CHEMICALIZATION ON YIELD AND DISEASE INFESTATION OF POTATOES
UDC: 635.21
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Elena Yu. Udalova;
The article presents the study of the possibility of optimizing the complex chemical protection with the help of methods we have justified of selecting fungicides and the timeframe for their application for pre-plant treatment of tubers and plant spraying during the growing season for yield and quality of potatoes. The aim of the work is to improve the methods of protection of early potato varieties from pests and diseases, ensuring an increase in yield in the conditions of the Republic of Mari El. For the first time in the conditions of the Republic of Mari El on sod-podzolic soil, the influence of new disinfectants for the pre-plant treatment of potato tubers against diseases and pests was studied. The tested disinfectants and fungicides increased the protective properties of plants, their endurance to biotic and abiotic stresses, activated stolon formation and tuber filling. Pre-plant treatment of tubers was an indispensable element of potato cultivation technology, because when cultivating this crop without disinfection the productivity decreases by 1.5–2 times. Complex application of insecticidal fungicides in the treatment of potato tubers allows to effectively inhibit the wireworms and imago of the Colorado potato beetle, without requiring additional vegetation treatments. The best variant of the experiment is the technology of complex application of pre-plant treatment of tubers with chemical disinfectant Celest Top (0,4 l/t) and spraying plants in the initial period of growth and before closing the tops with the biological preparation Alirin in a dose 3 l/ha. In this variant, the potato yield was 24.0 t/ha. Presowing treatment of tubers with disinfectants promoted the increase of tuber formation and development of large and medium-sized tubers. It should be noted that the potato tubers, treated before planting with protectants and during the growing season of potato plants with fungicides, did not have small and non-standard tubers.
THE YIELD OF SPRING BARLEY ON PERIODICALLY IRRIGATED LIGHT-CHESTNUT SOILS OF THE SEMIDESERT ZONE OF THE NORTHERN CASPIAN
UDC: 633.2.033.2
Section: AGRICULTURE
Authors: Valentina А. Fedorova; Ekaterina V. Yachmeneva;
Introduction. Adherence to crop rotations in the cultivation of spring crops is one of the main elements of such technologies. Purpose. To study the influence of various predecessors after drip irrigation on the yield of spring barley under conditions of natural moisture in the semidesert zone of the Northern Caspian. Materials and methods. Objects – periodically irrigated lands of the Northern Caspian during their use in the system of rain-fed agriculture for spring barley cultivation. Predecessors: 1 – bulb onion under drip irrigation, 2 – early potatoes under drip irrigation, control – black fallow in rainfed conditions. Observations, accounting and economic calculations were carried out in accordance with generally accepted methods. The agricultural machinery used in the experiment was based on the science-based farming system adopted in the region. The results of the study, discussion. Higher rates of soil moisture in the areas of periodic irrigation were explained by the presence of a reserve of irrigation water unclaimed by vegetable crops after the use of drip irrigation. Total barley water consumption on average for 2016–2018 on the black fallow was 189.7 mm, after onion – 219.9 mm, after potatoes – 213.4 mm. the Coefficient of water consumption, respectively – 269.5 m3/t, 83.0 м3/t and 105.6 m3/t of grain. The yield of barley grain in the fields after drip irrigation is almost three times (2.4–2.8 times) higher than in the fallow areas. Conclusion. Due to the additional reserves of soil moisture in the areas after drip irrigation, sowing of spring crops allows to obtain additionally up to 1.31–1.71 tons of grain in conditions of natural atmospheric moisture, preventing the reduction of soil fertility of irrigated areas. The profitability of such crops is from 153 to 199 %.
QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF TEACHER ACTIVITIES ON THE BASIS OF EFFECTIVE CONTRACT: RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTAL WORK ON THE BASIS OF MINING AND TECHNOLOGY COLLEGE OF YASNY, ORENBURG REGION
UDC: 37.088
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Denis V. Bochkov; Elena V. Samoilova ;
The article examines and analyzes the general approaches to the implementation of an effective contract as a tool for the new wage system, on the basis of which the problems of professional growth of teachers are solved in the educational organizations. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the need for continuous work on the problem of implementing a new wage system in education, to carry out a constant search for objective and optimal criteria to evaluate the effectiveness of the teacher’s work. The article demonstrates the impact of introducing an effective contract into the practice of assessing the quality of teachers' activities at the Mining Technology College of Yasny, justifies the interdependence of the growth in the level of activity quality and effective contract, describes the procedure for assessing the effectiveness of a teacher’s work through the lens of self-analysis. A complex indicator for assessing the quality of a teacher’s activity, which works in accordance with the scale of gradation of the quality level of teachers’ activity, developed experimentally was proposed for reflection. The article presents the initial measurements of the results of the implementation of an effective contract in 2017, on the basis of which the analysis and assessment of the problem areas were made, and then ways for their elimination were developed. Analysis of measurements in 2018 confirmed the increase in the level of quality of activity, which showed an increase in incentive payments compared with the previous measurement. In addition, the results of the study allowed us to summarize and formulate possible risks, as well as the obvious benefits of implementing an effective contract as a systematic measure at the Mining and Technology College of Yasny.
COMPONENT ANALYSIS OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC SITUATION IN THE EDUCATIONAL SPHERE OF THE MARI EL REPUBLIC
UDC: 330
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Tatyana A. Ignasheva;
Introduction. The article contains methodical bases of the analysis of the demographic situation in the educational activity of the Mari El Republic with the use of the deductive method of knowledge which realization is enabled by transition from a starting base of social, economic and demographic indicators to the aggregate values allowing to analyze the educational sphere of the region in various planes: spheres of secondary and higher vocational education. Purpose: carrying out the component analysis and modeling of demographic processes in the educational sphere of the Mari El Republic. Materials and methods. The analysis was carried out on the basis of statistical data of Maristat with the use of factor analysis method of principal components, allowing to reduce the initial analyzed feature space to the minimum sufficient number of integrated indicators giving a more complete characteristic of the studied phenomena. Results, discussion. As a result of realization of the algorithm of the method, two principal components are identified: the social – economic factor and the standard of living of the population.When modeling the sphere of secondary education on the number of the pupils admitted to secondary educational institutions, only the factor of social and economic development of the region has a significant direct effect, whereas the factor of the standard of living of the population is insignificant. The following conclusions are logical and do not contradict the rights of any social categories of minors to secondary education. Modeling of the sphere of higher education shows a significant reverse effect on the number of applicants enrolled in the region universities, of both factors, social and economic development and the standard of living of the population, proving the aspiration of affluent categories of citizens to enroll in higher education institutions of big and capital cities. Conclusion. The analysis of the obtained dependences shows that in order to improve the demographic situation in the educational sphere of the Mari El Republic it is necessary to adhere to the chosen course to increase the prestige of education in the region: maintaining the status of basic higher education institution of the Republic by the Mari State University and providing the graduates with job opportunities.
ATTRACTING INVESTMENT TO THE REGION’S ECONOMY AS A FACTOR OF INCREASING THE FINANCIAL AND BUDGETARY STABILITY OF THE SUBJECT OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
UDC: 336.1
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Marina V. Kazakovtseva ;
Introduction. The state of financial stability of the budget of the subjects of the Russian Federation is significantly influenced by factors determining the economic development of the subject. In the conditions of insufficiency of budgetary funds it is the growth of economic activity in the subject that can positively influence the increase in tax capacity. The active investment policy of public authorities of the territorial subjects of the Russian Federation, including the attraction of foreign capital to economy of the subject has to become a basis of this growth. The objective of the research is to analyze the investment attractiveness of the RF regions and to reveal activities that contribute to attracting investment to the regions of Russia. Materials and methods. The investment attractiveness of the region consists of several factors. Each factor is characterized by a group of indicators. In the rating of the National Rating Agency seven factors of regional investment attractiveness are considered. The work presents an assessment of investment attractiveness and discloses activities aimed at attracting investment to the subjects of the Russian Federation, contributing to the establishment of international cooperation, the development of the necessary infrastructure and measures to improve the quality of the investment climate in the subject of the Russian Federation. Study results, discussion. In order to ensure the growth of financial and budgetary stability of the subject of the Russian Federation, the author considers measures to improve the quality of the investment climate in the subjects of the Russian Federation, to attract Russian and foreign investment to the subjects of the Russian Federation, considered possible forms of cooperation with foreign investors. Conclusion. The proposed measures of increasing the investment potential of the subjects of the Russian Federation and to attract foreign investments to the economy of the subjects of the Russian Federation should become the basis for the development of long-term strategic potential of the subjects of the Russian Federation. The state authorities by their actions should stimulate the emergence of new investors, develop competition and form such a contingent of taxpayers that would allow providing budget revenues sufficient for the economic development of the subject of the Russian Federation.
STRUCTURAL PROBLEMS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ADYGEA AND DIRECTIONS OF THEIR SOLUTION
UDC: 338;348;631
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin; Svetlana A. Chernikova;
Introduction. Agriculture is an important part of the state's economy and a leading strategic direction affecting food independence and improving the health of citizens. The program and goal oriented approach at the regional level is aimed at achieving indicators of socio-economic growth. The actualization of agricultural production as a locomotive for the development of areas with agricultural specialization is associated with a complex geopolitical situation and sanctions pressure, the need to introduce import substitution in the field of crop production and animal husbandry. In regions with difficult socio-economic situation and the presence of depressed municipalities, the revival of agriculture contributes to solving social problems, increasing employment and reducing the outflow of population, maintaining able-bodied personnel. The introduction of modern methods of management and production in agriculture increases the financial and economic results of business entities, affects the investment attractiveness, develops public-private partnership. Purpose: to consider the impact of agricultural production on the socioeconomic development of the country's regions on the example of the Republic of Adygea, to identify structural problems of the industry and the directions of their solution. Materials and methods. Modeling of socio-economic processes, systematic and situational approach, analysis of statistical data on agricultural production. Results of the study, discussion. The Republic of Adygea has the necessary potential for the development of agriculture, which is the basic industry, making more than a half of the contribution to the formation of the gross regional product. However, favorable extensive indicators (increase in the area of land in circulation) are complemented by a decrease in productivity, which indicates problems with optimal use of arable land and low level of technologies that stimulate production processes in plant growing. Conclusion. Smoothing out the structural problems of agricultural production of the Republic of Adygea should be carried out on the basis of the introduction of innovative digital technologies that increase the optimization of the use of crop production potential.
THEORETICAL AND METHODICAL ASPECTS OF STRATEGIC ANALYSIS AT THE ENTERPRISE
UDC: 338.24.01
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Natalia N. Pasmurtseva;
Introduction. The article is devoted to the problem of formation of theoretical and methodical approach to the study of external and internal environment in the system of strategic management of modern enterprise. Sustainable growth and competitiveness of the enterprise largely depend on the strategy of its development chosen by the management. And if the essence of the strategy is to achieve the long-term goals set by the management in the conditions of accelerated market dynamics, the purpose of strategic analysis is to reduce the uncertainty of the external and internal environment through its constant diagnosis and monitoring. Purpose is to develop a methodical approach to the strategic analysis of the enterprise, based on the principle of consistency, on the basis of methods, tools, criteria and indicators existing in theory and practice of strategic management Materials and methods. The theoretical basis was the scientific works of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of strategic management in enterprises. In the course of the research general scientific methods of cognition were used: comparative and logical analysis, systematic approach, as well as graphical method of research. Results, discussion. The article deals with various approaches of modern scientists to the essence of the concept of “strategic analysis” and the purpose of strategic analysis in the enterprise management system. The author proposes a methodical approach to the study of the external and internal environment of the enterprise, based on the principle of consistency in strategic management. The range of problems hindering the implementation of effective strategic analysis at the enterprise is defined. Conclusion. The methodical approach presented by the author will allow enterprises to systematize the mechanisms of strategic management of business processes, increase the investment attractiveness and competitiveness of economic entities.
GENERALIZATION OF SOME SOLUTIONS OF INTERPRIZES’ PROBLEMS
UDC: 338.29
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Rodion S. Rogulin; Pavel V. Nechayev; Natalya S. Evdakimova ; Evgeniy D. Goncharov; Valeriy I. Maximenko; Dmitriy E. Pleshanov;
This article describes a generalized model of three problems of linear programming. The production problem - the response vector is a one-dimensional matrix that reflects the amount of finished products produced, determined with resource constraints, taking into account profit maximization. Time optimization – minimizing the time spent on cargo delivery (the restriction refers to the logistic part of the problem). The problem of maximum flow is to find the maximum volume of export from the production sites, with a restriction on the traffic capacity and peculiarity of the structure of the road graph. In particular, the statement of the problem, which combines all three of the above problems into a complex one is exactly suited to the case when the manufacture declares itself bankrupt, and tries to produce products from the remainders of raw materials, for the purpose of further resale and delivery of produced goods, subject to the peculiarity of the road system, profits maximization and minimization of costs for cargo transportation. Such a problem arose at the textile enterprise in the process of closing for the repair of the processing part of the workshop. Since the biological composition of the raw material does not allow it to be stored for a long time, it was decided to realize the maximum raw materials into products This work is devoted to the construction of a linear mixed-integer model, finding a method and selection of an algorithm to determine the optimal solution to the problem described above. This problem can be attributed to the class of nontrivial combinatorial problems of decision- making in the enterprise.
GENDER APPROACH TO ANALYZING THE STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYMENT BY TYPE OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY IN THE REGION
UDC: 331
Section: ECONOMICS
Authors: Tat'yana V. Sarycheva;
Introduction. The article describes methodological approaches to analyzing the structure of employment by types of economic activity in the region from a gender perspective, implemented on the example of the activities of the Republic of Mari El, which made it possible to analyze gender asymmetry with the regional structure of employment and consider distribution processes in the region’s labor market. Purpose: to develop and implement methodological approaches to the analysis of the concentration of men and women by type of activity, allowing for an assessment of gender asymmetry and mobility in the regional labor market. Materials and methods. The information base for the stated research was the published statistics of the Territorial State Statistics Office for the Republic of Mari El. Algorithms of index methods of statistical analysis were used as research tools. Results of the research, discussion. As a result of the implementation of algorithms of index methods, the activities of the region were grouped and identified as: mostly male, mostly female and integrated activities of the Republic of Mari El, the dynamics of the processes occurring in the structure of gender employment were analyzed, and their relationship with the average monthly salary in the context of economic activities was proven. The ways of eliminating gender asymmetry in employment are proposed. Conclusion. Analysis of the results showed that in order to eliminate gender inequality, changes in recruitment practices, elimination of differences in wages by type of activity and gender are required.
состоялся открытый вебинар «Антиплагиат» в Elpub: как использовать правильно?
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ФГБНУ Федеральный аграрный научный центр Северо-Востока имени Н. В. Рудницкого (г. Ки- ров) приглашаем вас 1–5 апреля 2019 г. принять участие в работе V Международной научно-практи- ческой конференции «Методы и технологии в селекции растений и растениеводстве» и школы моло- дых ученых по эколого-генетическим основам северного растениеводства. Место проведения: ФГБНУ Федеральный аграрный научный центр Северо-Востока имени Н. В. Руд- ницкого, г. Киров, ул. Ленина, 166а. Информация о конференции размещена на сайте ФГБНУ ФАНЦ Северо-Востока: www.fanc-sv.ru