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VESTNIK 1 (37)
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2024-05-06 08:44:48
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Determination of probiotic bacterial strains sensitivity to antibacterial drugs by the disc diffusion method
UDC: 579.852.11
Authors: Guryeva Vitalia I.; Valentina M. Bachinskaya ; Natalya R. Sharapova;
Introduction. Currently, there is a wide implementation of probiotics for therapeutic use for the treatment and recovery of health. Based on this, numerous studies are conducted in order to identify possible risks, features, and confirm the beneficial effects of various strains of microorganisms on the body. Probiotics based on Bacillus subtilis, represented by a complex of spore-forming bacteria, are antagonists of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, they also contribute to the restoration of populations of lacto- and bifidobacteria, reduce the population of opportunistic bacteria, (E. coli for example) and other microorganisms, that make up the normoflora of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract), for ensuring its normal functioning. The purpose of the study was to determine the sensitivity of probiotic drugs based on the B. subtilis strain to antibacterial drugs to assess the possibilities of joint use or complex therapy. Materials and methods. Considering probiotic strains in the drugs Probiotic no. 1 and Probiotic no. 2, special attention was paid to their sensitivity to antibiotics. To determine the antibiotic resistance of beneficial strains of bacteria of the genus Bacillus, which are part of probiotics, the disc diffusion method (DDM) for determining antibiotic resistance using standard discs was used. In this study, the antibiotic resistance of probiotics based on B. subtilis strains to a certain range of antibiotics was revealed. Research results, discussion. The results obtained show that Probiotic no. 1 can be used in conjunction with the antibiotics benzylpenicillin, oxacillin and spiramycin. Probiotic no. 2 is resistant to amoxicillin, which means it can be successfully used for joint therapy with the antibiotic. Complex therapy is possible with benzylpenicillin, furazolidone and oxacillin under certain conditions (depending on the concentration of the antibiotic), since the result is moderately sensitive. Conclusion. The resistance of probiotic strains to antibacterial drugs significantly increases the effectiveness of their joint use and interaction in complex therapy to maintain microbiological balance and gastrointestinal health.
Identification and analysis of polymorphism of protein metabolism genes in Holstein cows
UDC: 636.082.12
Authors: Farit F. Zinnatov; Takhir M. Akhmetov; Natalia D. Chevtaeva; Maria A. Stafikopulo ; Elvira R. Goreva;
Introduction. Milk is one of the full-fledged food products, which is commonly called universal food. The supply of high-quality food products to the population of the country, including milk, is one of the most important issues of maintaining the health and food security of the population of any country, especially in the context of the geopolitical situation and import substitution. The purpose of the study was to identify and conduct PCR-PDRF analysis to study the polymorphism of kappa‒casein and beta-lactoglobulin protein metabolism genes in Holstein cows and to identify the relationship between these polymorphic gene variants with signs of animal dairy productivity. Materials and methods. Experimental studies and evaluation of genes carrying useful signs for dairy cattle breeding were carried out on 99 heads of cattle using PCR. The results of the research. The conducted genetic analysis showed that cows with the CSN3BBBLGAA genotype demonstrated the best milk yield, reaching an impressive 7340 kg, as well as protein yield, which amounted to 235.6 kg. Such cows were only 1.05 % of the total number studied. Animals with high milk protein content have also been identified – these are cows with the CSN3BBBLGAB genotype. The milk of these representatives has an impressive protein content of 3.36 %, which indicates their excellent performance in this parameter. Conclusion. Therefore, in order to succeed in breeding, it is necessary to use molecular genetic, DNA methods in breeding work, which will help to accurately determine the value of animals containing desirable complex genotypes in their genome and further accumulate them in the breeding core. The genetic code of each animal is unique, and with the help of DNA technologies, you can learn almost everything about animals - their predisposition to diseases, their ability to withstand high loads and recover quickly from injuries, as well as meat and dairy productivity and other important characteristics.
Application of essential elements, methionine and Alfasorb in animal anemia induced by cadmium
UDC: 619:615.9:581.192.6
Authors: Svetlana N. Potapova; Ilnur R. Kadikov; Ekaterina I. Kurshakova; Danil R. Sagdeev;
Introduction. In the development of iron deficiency anemia, a certain role is assigned to the effects of cadmium, whose pollution has a significant impact on the environment and public health. Once in the human and animal bodies, free cadmium ions contribute to the formation of reactive oxygen species, damaging liver and kidney tissue. This disrupts the metabolism of vital elements, including iron, heme synthesis and erythropoietin production. Cadmium-induced iron deficiency leads to a decrease in its intake into the bone marrow, as a result of which the synthesis of hemoglobin and erythrocytes is disrupted, anemia develops. Materials and methods. The studies were conducted on 36 laboratory rats, which were divided into 3 groups of 12 individuals each. The first group was a biological control, the second received CdCl2 daily with feed at the rate of 0.12 mg/kg of body weight (bw), the third received CdCl2 at the same dose as the animals of the second group, as well as ZnCl2 at a dose of 25 mg/kg of bw, Mg(NO3)2 – 10 mg/kg of bw, Na2SeO3 – 150 mcg/l of drinking water, methionine – 10 mg/kg of bw and Alfasorb – 1 % of the diet. Results and discussion. A study of the levels of erythrocytes, their average volume and hemoglobin in the blood of rats exposed to cadmium revealed the gradual development of anemia. While in the rats of the third group, which additionally received zinc, magnesium, selenium salts, methionine and Alfasorb in the diet, signs of anemia developed less pronounced. At the same time, the level of malondialdehyde in the blood of animals decreased, and the number of sulfhydryl groups increased. Conclusion. Taken together, the data obtained indicates the protective role of the components used against the effects of cadmium, characterized by a decrease in metal intake, its accumulation in internal organs, as well as the prevention of anemia.
Dependence of morphophysiological parameters of Dactylis glomerata leaves on anthropogenic factors
UDC: 631.421.2
Authors: Elena A. Skochilova;
Introduction. Dactylis glomerata ‒ a forest-meadow species, is a valuable forage crop, widely used to create lawn grass mixtures, and is also used in urban and road construction. However, the structural and functional parameters and adaptive capabilities of the D. glomerata under conditions of technogenic load have not been sufficiently studied. The purpose of the research is to study the dependence of D. glomerata leaves morphophysiological parameters in ontogenesis on anthropogenic factors. Materials and methods. The object of the study was the Dactylis glomerata (L.). Studies of D. glomerata were carried out on virginal (v) and middle-aged generative (g2) states. The plant material was collected on the territory of the Republic of Mari El. The studies were carried out in the Sovetsky district (Republic of Mari El) ‒ dry D. glomerata-forb meadow (control); in Yoshkar-Ola ‒ Pavlenko Street (area of low pollution), Vodoprovodnaya Street (area of moderate pollution). The study areas were selected according to the intensity of traffic flow. Leaf specific surface density (LSSD) and leaf area were determined by the cutting method. The intensity of photosynthesis was studied using the assimilation flask method. The work carried out multiple comparisons of data and correlation analysis. Research results and discussion. The research results showed that the main traffic flow, regardless of the study area, consisted of passenger transport. Vodoprovodnaya Street was the busiest with vehicles, slightly fewer cars were recorded on Pavlenko Street.The structural and functional parameters of leaves of v and g2 plants of D. glomerata were studied in areas with different vehicle flow intensities. As the intensity of vehicle traffic increases (Vodoprovodnaya St.), the v and g2 individuals of D. glomerata experience a decrease in the LSSD, leaf area and photosynthesis intensity. A positive correlation was revealed between the intensity of photosynthesis and LSSD in v and g2 plants of D. glomerata. Conclusion. Our studies have shown the dependence of morphological parameters and intensity of photosynthesis in v and g2 D. glomerata plants on anthropogenic factors.
The effect of probiotics on the veterinary and sanitary assessment of turkey meat
UDC: 619:616-07:616.4
Authors: Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Ali Kh. Volkov; Ellada K. Рapunidi ; Ramil N. Fayzrakhmanov;
Introduction. In the context of the current government policy, which restricts the import of agricultural products from some countries and promotes the transition to import substitution, the development of small farms introducing innovative production, such as turkey farming, is becoming especially relevant. Turkey meat is a delicacy product with low cholesterol content, it is considered dietary and recommended for child nutrition. In addition, it has high taste qualities. The share of turkey meat in the total volume of poultry meat production exceeds 4 %, which makes this area attractive to investors due to the low level of competition. Materials and methods. The object of the study was a turkey related to the Hybrid Converter cross. The research was carried out in the Iletskoye agricultural complex of the Morkinsky district of the Republic of Mari El. Two experimental and one control groups of 50 heads each were formed. The first experimental group received the prebiotic Profort at the rate of 1 kg of prebiotic per 1 ton of feed. The second experimental group received Vitaferm with water at the rate of 50 g per 1 ton of water. Research results, discussion. In the experimental group no. 1, an increase in protein content by 25.5 %, glucose by 8 %, calcium by 4.4 % (p<0.05) and phosphorus by 7.7 % (p<0.05) was observed. In the experimental group no. 2, similar indicators were improved by 25.4 % (p<0.001) for protein, 8.1 % for glucose, 4.7 % (p<0.05) for calcium and 10.8 % (p<0.05) for phosphorus. An important result of the study was an increase in slaughter yield in experimental group no. 1 by 4.9 %, as well as an increase in the ratio of pectoral muscle mass to gutted carcass by 15.1 %. In experimental group no. 2, the slaughter yield increased by 4.9 %, and the output of pectoral muscles to the gutted carcass was 17.4 % higher than in the control group. Conclusion. The use of probiotic additives Profort and Vitaferm in the experiment with turkeys showed a positive effect on the biochemical parameters of blood serum.
The diversity of microorganisms in alluvial meadow medium loamy soil
UDC: 632.4.01/.08
Authors: Lyubov M. Sokolova;
Introduction. According to modern estimates, there are more than 250 thousand species of fungi and fungus-like organisms on Earth. A peculiar and rather favorable habitat for many soil microscopic fungi is a soil layer from the zero horizon to 10 cm, depending on the crop. The dispersal of fungi in the soil is greatly influenced by such factors as the physical properties and chemical composition of the soil, especially the degree of saturation of the soil with organic substances, active soil acidity (pH), temperature, humidity, oxygen supply of the air and, finally, the higher plants growing in the form of an integral phytocenosis, i.e. vegetation cover. The purpose of the work is to identify the generic affiliation of microorganisms from alluvial meadow medium loamy soil and to determine the prevalence of pathogens depending on the agro-climatic indicators of the years. The article describes methods for the identification of soil microorganisms, as a result of the application of these methods, a complex of pathogens has been identified from alluvial meadow medium loamy soil, these are F.oxysporum, F.avenacium, Fusarium sp., Acremonium, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., A. dauci, A. radicina. It has been determined that the manifestation of pathogens depends on the agro-climatic conditions of the year. Thus, with high humidity (85.6 %) and high temperatures (18.2) in 2018, the spread of pathogens averaged 11.81 %. With low humidity (67.3) and low temperature (16.7) in 2020, the spread of the pathogen complex was 9.33 %. In the conditions of 2022, with average humidity (74.1) and elevated temperature (19.5), the spread was 8.61 %. The colonization of the soil with a complex mycobiota makes it possible to annually select resistant plants (genotypes) in order to create new resistant varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops. The article also presents the positive aspects of the soil mycobiota, which plays an important role in soil structure. Thus, nodule bacteria are able to fix nitrogen, and the resulting ammonia is used by the plant for its own growth. Microscopic fungi decompose plant residues.
Biological significance of chlorella for raising farm animals and birds (review)
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Liliya M. Sufyanova; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
Introduction. Chlorella is an amazing microscopic algae plant that is a green algae. It is widely used as a feed additive due to its high nutritional composition and unique properties. The main strain of chlorella, which is used in the production of feed additives, is called Chlorella Vulgaris. Materials and methods. As a methodological basis for this work, the works published by both Russian and foreign specialized specialists are considered. Among the scientific methods that we relied on in carrying out the work, general scientific ones are distinguished, in particular, synthesis, analysis, comparison, as well as generalization. Results and discussion. Adding chlorella to the diet of animals has a number of advantages. Firstly, it helps to reduce the mortality of young animals to a minimum. Secondly, chlorella promotes better absorption of feed by animals. Due to this, the weight gain of pigs, cattle, rabbits and birds increases, and the egg production of chickens increases. The third advantage of chlorella is that it contains a lot of vitamins that are necessary for the normal functioning of the animal body. There are several ways to add chlorella to an animal’s diet. One of the most effective ways is to use a suspension. This allows you to save half of the water-soluble vitamins that are in the medium. Conclusion. A review of the literature by both domestic and foreign authors has shown that chlorella suspension is a highly valuable feed additive for farm animals. It is necessary to conduct additional research to study its impact on the productivity and safety of young animals raised for fattening. This makes it possible to introduce chlorella suspension into production.
Acute oral toxicity of Galluasorb in laboratory animals
UDC: 619:615.9:636.087.7
Authors: Svetlana A. Tanaseva; Evgeniya Yu. Tarasova; Lilia E. Matrosova; Olga K. Ermolaeva;
Introduction. Mycotoxins are a hidden danger in animal and poultry feed. In the search for new methods of combating mycotoxicosis, scientific researchers have increased their interest in natural sources of raw materials (as adsorbents) and the creation of complex preparations based on them. In order to introduce new drugs into production, it is necessary to conduct a complete preclinical study in accordance with modern requirements. The purpose of present study is to investigate the acute toxicity of the complex feed additive “Galluasorb”, based on a natural adsorbent – galloisite. Materials and methods. The article presents the results of the study of acute toxicity with oral administration of 4 doses of a feed additive: 2000, 3000, 4000 and 6000 mg/kg on 2 types of laboratory animals, such as rats and rabbits. There were 6 males and 6 females in each group of rats, and 3 males and 3 females in each group of rabbits. The feed additive was administered to animals once intragastrically through a tube in the form of a suspension. Morphological blood analysis was performed by an automatic Mythic 18 Vet analyzer. Research results, discussion. The analysis of the results of a comparative study of the acute toxicity of a feed additive with a single intragastric administration in rats and rabbits is presented. During 14 days of observation, no death of animals was detected, there were no violations of the general condition and behavior, no negative effects on body weight and morphological parameters of blood (number of erythrocytes, leukocytes, hemoglobin, platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes) were observed. The studied feed additive can be classified according to the degree of exposure to the body to low-toxic substances as toxicity class 4.
Influence of the method and intensity of processing meat with sodium chloride on the hydration properties of muscle proteins
UDC: 637.5.035
Authors: Elena V. Tsaregorodtseva; Ekaterina A. Savinkova;
Introduction. Sodium chloride affects the functional and technological properties of raw materials, providing consistency, characteristic taste and extending the shelf life of finished meat products. The choice of salting method in the production of meat products is determined by the composition of the raw materials. Intensification of the salting process contributes to a faster and more uniform distribution of salt, and also increases the water-holding capacity of raw meat and, as a consequence, the yield of the finished product. The purpose of the work is to study the influence of the method and intensity of salting on the physicochemical properties of beef. Materials and methods. In the MarSU laboratory of Technology and examination of food products of animal origin, studies were carried out on changes in the mass fraction of moisture and NaCl, water-holding capacity when using various methods (wet, dry) and the intensity of salting (rest, massaging). Research results, discussion. In the control sample, the water-holding capacity of meat was 51.2 ± 1.8 %, the mass fraction of moisture was 75.97 ± 6.6, and the salt content was 0.035 %.During salting, the water-holding capacity indicator significantly increased in wet salting options by 5.5‒2.6 % and decreased in dry salting options by 24.6‒39.8 %.The mass fraction of moisture in wet-salted meat samples increased by 4.8‒3.2 %, and in dry-salted meat samples decreased significantly by 2.1‒3.1 %. The salting method had a direct effect on the salt concentration in the meat. The mass fraction of salt in the variants of wet salting method increased compared to the control by 4.6‒3.3 times, and in the dry method by 3.5‒2.8 times. Conclusion. Intensive salting of raw meat using the wet-salted method of canning leads to an increase in the mass fraction of moisture and water-holding capacity, rapid distribution of curing substances throughout the entire volume of the product and is the most optimal in conditions of intensification of the processes of production of salted products.
Problems and opportunities for the development of enterprises of the Russian agro-industrial complex in the conditions of sanctions pressure
UDC: 338.439
Authors: Stepan P. Burlankov; Anton R. Poshibaev; Petr S. Burlankov;
Introduction. The article shows the problems of adaptation of the Russian agro-industrial complex (AIC) to the conditions of sanctions pressure, and also identifies the prospects opening up for the agro-complex in new conditions, considers a number of key problems, including: disruption of logistical supply chains of agricultural products, difficulties with the import of seeds, feed additives, machinery and technologies. Among the main opportunities for development, the following are highlighted: increasing the efficiency of the seed industry, developing the agricultural machinery and equipment production, expanding domestic agricultural enterprises into new markets, etc. The purpose of the work is to analyze the problems of adaptation of enterprises of the Russian agro‒industrial complex (AIC) to the conditions of sanctions pressure on our country and assess the prospects that open up to the domestic agricultural complex in the new conditions. Materials and methods. The work uses materials from the periodical press, mass media, and official statistical data on the activities of the Russian agro-industrial complex, including in the context of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Research results, discussions. Since the agro-industrial complex of the Russian Federation was seriously dependent on the supply of agricultural products, imported seeds, feed additives, machinery and technologies, it became necessary to assess the main opportunities for the development of the domestic agro-industrial complex in these problem areas, in connection with which, development directions were identified, consisting in increasing the efficiency of the seed industry, the expansion of agricultural enterprises into new markets, in search of new supplies of necessary logistical resources in friendly countries. Conclusion. Thus, under the current conditions, it is necessary to ensure state support for the industry, stimulate investment, ensure effective import substitution and dynamic technological development of agricultural enterprises, and work out mechanisms for the expansion of Russian agricultural producers into new foreign markets.
Investment imperatives for forestry complex sustainable development
UDC: 330.322.21
Authors: Nikolay A. Petrunin; Lyudmila V. Smolennikova;
Introduction. This work assesses the effectiveness of solving problems defined by the Fundamentals of State Forest Policy in the field of use, protection, protection and reproduction of the Russian Federation forests in terms of increasing the forestry complex competitiveness through measures to modernize enterprises producing products with high added value and the construction of new ones, supporting the development of forestry engineering for forestry and logging activities, as well as the production of equipment for chemical and mechanical processing of wood, creating conditions for increasing the availability of credit resources and stimulating the technical and technological renewal of timber production, ensuring advanced processing of wood, the introduction of resource-saving and environmentally friendly technologies. The purpose is to characterize investment processes in the forestry complex, identify destructive factors that generate threats to its sustainability, and substantiate mechanisms for increasing investment activity. Materials and methods. When carrying out the research, a systematic approach was applied and general logical (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction), theoretical (abstraction, generalization, historical), empirical (observation, description) methods were used. Research results, discussion. The results of the studies showed that the investment activity of the forestry complex subjects is low, and the created institution of priority investment projects is interesting for large vertically integrated companies and is not suitable for small and medium-sized businesses. Dependence on imported technologies for the high added value products production, machinery and equipment has been established, which generates threats to the forestry complex economic security. Conclusion. It has been determined that in order to overcome negative trends in the forestry sector, it is necessary to include the forestry complex in territorial strategic planning systems, develop mechanisms of state support for investors, including public-private partnerships, develop and approve lending programs with a loyal system of interest rates, allowing the investment resources formation for projects with a long payback period, including small and medium-sized businesses.