VESTNIK 3 (27) 2021

VESTNIK 3 (27) 2021
Date publication on the site:
2021-11-10 15:21:31
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UDC: УДК 633.11+633.2
Authors: Lyubov A. Garaeva; Sergey I. Novoselov;
The effect of fertilizers and precursors on the yield and chemical composition of spring wheat has been studied. It was revealed that a higher yield of spring wheat grain up to 3.22 t/ha was obtained in a favorable 2013. In 2014 and 2015, the grain yield was lower and did not exceed 2.71 t/ha. Mineral fertilizers had a positive effect on the formation of spring wheat grain yield. On average, over 3 years, the gains from their use, depending on their predecessors, ranged from 0.66 t/ha to 0.88 t/ha. When cultivating spring wheat, both without the use of mineral fertilizers, and against the background of N30P60K60, the smallest amount of protein, respectively 13.3 % and 14.3 %, gluten − 24.0 % and 26.9 %, and the weight of 1000 grains − 40.1 g and 41.7 g, had grain grown when placing spring wheat on the cereal predecessor.When cultivating spring wheat on red clover without the use of mineral fertilizers, the protein content in the grain increased to 13.5 %, and when they were used to 14.6 %. The amount of gluten increased and amounted to 24.8 % and 27.4 %, respectively. The weight of 1000 grains was 41.5 % and 43.5 %, respectively. The cultivation of spring wheat by legume-cereal grass mixture en-sured the accumulation of protein in the grain on a non-fertilized background of 13.5 %, and with the use of mineral fertilizers 14.6 %. The gluten content in the grain was 24.3 % and 27.2 %, respectively. The weight of 1000 grains in the cultivation of spring wheat without the use of mineral fertilizers was 41.3 %, and when they were used 43.1 %.
UDC: УДК 631.423.3
Authors: Elena S. Zakamskaya; Elena A. Skochilova;
Introduction: Among the factors that have a negative effect on the soil cover is the use of anti-ice reagents con-taining chlorides in winter, which leads to soil salinization. As a result of halochemical contamination, the water potential of the soil decreases, which leads to a water supply interruption of the plant. High level of salt concen-trations in the soil decreases the vitality and growth of plants, negatively affects the plants condition, micro and mycobiota. Purpose: evaluation of chloride contamination of soils near roadways and walkways in different functional zones of Yoshkar-Ola. Materials and methods.The object of the study were the soils near the road-way and walkways in the residential, industrial and recreational zones of Yoshkar-Ola. Sampling, sample prepa-ration and chloride content identification by the argentometric method according to Mohr were carried out in accordance with the actual regulatory documentation. Research results, discussion. The concentration of chlo-ride ions near roads and on lawns varies from 0.007 to 0.043 %. Cluster analysis made it possible to divide all the streets in the residential zone into 3 groups: the first group included streets where the content of chlorine ions was more than 0.03%; the second group consists of streets, in the urbal soils of which the chloride content varies from 0.02 to 0.03 %; in soils of the third group, the values of this indicator are less than 0.02 %. The difference between different functional zones of Yoshkar-Ola by the content of chlorine ions in the soils is not statistically significant. Conclusion. According to the degree of salinization with chlorides, the soils of all functional zones are unsalted, which indicates that the use of a sand-salt mixture as an anti-icing reagent on the territory of Yoshkar-Ola does not lead to a salt loan on the soil.
UDC: УДК 636.2.033 (332.15)
Authors: Alexander A. Ivanov; Olga A. Stolyarova; Antonina V. Shatova; Yulia V. Reshetkina;
Within the framework of the article, it is proposed to analyze the current state of beef cattle breeding, taking into account the prospects for its development regarding the socio-economic and soil-climatic features of the four zones allocated on the territory of the Penza region: I. Vadinsko-Mokshanskaya natural-economic zone − unites agricultural producers of 12 administrative districts. On its territory, good and average soils are concen-trated. This zone is characterized by a high intensity of crop and livestock production (primarily poultry and dairy farming) with a concentration of large food processing enterprises. II. Belinsko-Serdobskaya natural-economic zone is located in the southern and southwestern part of the region and includes 7 administrative dis-tricts. The soils of this zone are characterized by the highest bonitet in the region, the category of arable land in terms of productivity is good and the best. This zone is characterized by the highest intensity of development of the crop production industry. III. Nikolsko-Gorodishchenskaya natural-economic zone - covers the northeastern part of the region, unites three administrative districts. In the districts of this natural-economic zone, the limiting factors for the development of agricultural production are the low fertility of most of the soils (gray and light gray forest soils) and the lack of thermal resources. IV. Kuznetsko-Lopatinskaya includes 5 administrative districts located in the southeastern and eastern parts of the region. In this natural-economic zone, the category of arable land in terms of productivity is average, but the score of arable land is lower than in most areas of zones I and II. Spring dry winds and droughts are most often observed in this zone.
UDC: УДК 619:615.9:616-085
Authors: Nailya N. Mishina;
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of mold fungi and cause great economic damage, impairing the produc-tivity and conversion of feed, reducing immunity and reproductive function, increasing the cost of treating an-imals. Despite the growing list of pharmacological drugs for the treatment of mycotoxicosis, the choice of effec-tive means of protection against mycotoxins is still extremely insignificant, since no specific prevention has yet been developed. This article evaluates the effectiveness of specific polyclonal serums in animal mycotoxicosis. To set up the experiment, 4 groups of white rats were formed. The first group of animals served as biological control, the rats of the second group received T-2 toxin in the form of a 5% water-alcohol solution at a dose of 1/20 LD50, the third group received T-2 toxin in a similar dosage and treatment in the form of injections of poly-clonal serum at a dose of 0.3 ml per kg of body weight on the first, seventh and fourteenth days of the experi-ment, the fourth was injected polyclonal serum at the same time and dosages. As a result of gravimetric studies, it was found that by the end of the experiment, the rats of the second group had a body weight loss of 36,5 % (p<0,001) compared to the control group, while against the background of treatment - 13,8 % (p<0,01). Based on the results of hematological and biochemical studies of the blood of experimental animals, an improvement in the homeostasis of the body and the metabolic function of liver was established. The results of the study jus-tify the expediency of using specific treatment based on specific polyclonal serums for the treatment of myco-toxicosis in animals.
UDC: УДК 619.615.33
Authors: Andrey I. Samsonov;
The article aims to review various cell culture or in vitro co-culture models that can be used to assess mycotoxin exposure, toxicity and risk reduction, and their suitability and limitations for assessing the safety of animal foods and by-products. Mycotoxins are a worldwide problem because of their potential to contaminate agricul-tural commodities and pose a health risk to both humans and animals. Since mycotoxins are usually present in combination, it is important not only to understand their mechanisms of toxic action, many of which are un-known, but also to understand how they interact with each other to affect humans and animals exposed to them. In vitro cell culture models of the intestinal barrier were used to simulate oral exposure to mycotoxins. These intestinal models are usually based on a monolayer epithelial cell culture system, sometimes grown on membrane inserts, to better mimic the intestinal barrier for assessing intestinal mycotoxin transport. A number of different mitigation approaches have been developed and applied to help reduce the adverse effects of my-cotoxins on animals. With this in mind, there is a constant need to develop new, more effective mycotoxin ad-sorbents and to evaluate their effectiveness.In vitro cell culture can help you better understand what is actually happening at the gut level. In vitro cell culture systems (monoculture or co-culture systems) can be a useful and effective approach to start exploring the complex problems of organ and species-specific mycotoxin toxicity at the cellular and molecular levels, such as interactions between different mycotoxins, the comparative toxicity of mycotoxins and their metabolites. Cell culture systems may be suitable methods for studying the biotransfor-mation of mycotoxins in animal cells and protective agents.
UDC: УДК 619.615.2/661.155.3
Authors: Eduard I. Semenov; Gali N. Nigmatulin; Alena Yu. Likhacheva; Nikolay M. Vasilevskiy;
In the context of the intensification of poultry farming and the multifactorial nature of the reasons affecting its profitability, it was necessary to develop new feed additives to maintain health and increase the productivity of poultry. The available feed additives did not always take into account the techno-logies of feeding and mainte-nance in poultry farming that had changed over the years, an increase in productivity and metabolic pressure on the poultry body, the risk of metabolic syndrome, which could be catalyzed by modern agricultural chemistry. The aim of the research was the primary selection of potential components for the development of a feed addi-tive in order to correct metabolism and increase the productivity of laying hens. Laying hens of the Lochmann cross, 260−320 days old, were formed into groups of 5 individuals each, 17 groups in total. Potential formula-tions which were given with food or with drinking water were tested for 20 days. Several series of experiments were carried out. During the experiment, the clinical picture of sick chickens was monitored, egg production was recorded, at the end of the test, a diagnostic autopsy and blood sampling for biochemical analysis of blood serum were carried out. One of the main criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of the additive was a change in the orange-red coloration of the droppings, as the main sign of a disease of unknown origin. Various formula-tions (13 variants) with ingredients with potential sorption, antioxidant, immunostimulating, hepatoprotective, metabolism and feed digestibility properties had been studied. As a result of screening, including an assessment of productivity, biochemical blood profile, color of droppings and defective eggs (spots), it was found that the most optimal recipe were coded P11 and P12.
UDC: УДК 619.615.9
Authors: Svetlana A. Semеnova; Yulia V. Krasovskaya; Farit M. Nurgaliev;
Microscopic fungi are producers of toxic secondary metabolites - mycotoxins. These hazardous substances are often found in animal feed and lead to its increased toxicity. Many strategies have been proposed to eliminate the negative effect of mycotoxins on human and animal health, one of the most promising, but at the same time poorly developed, is the use of antagonists of mycotoxin producers. The aim of the research was to find antagonists of mycotoxin producers. Materials and methods. Soil samples from various regions of the Republic of Tatarstan served as the material for the study, from which isolates of various genera of microscopic fungi (genera Candida, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Tricdhoderma, Fusarium) were isolated. The antagonistic interaction between microorganisms was determined by the method of streak inoculation, "plate" method. Toxigenic strains of F. graminearum, A. flavus, F. sporotrichioides were used as test strains. Research results, discussion. Pure cultures of micromycete isolates were isolated and obtained. Their main cultural and morphological properties were determined, due to which their preliminary identification was carried out to the generic and partly species affiliation. The toxigenicity of the micromycetes themselves was preliminarily assessed and the experiments were carried out only with atoxigenic isolates. Each isolate was assigned a code. Antagonistic relationships have been established between some micromycetes. Fungi of the genus Aspergillus and Trichoderma exhibited antagonism against toxigenic micromycetes F. graminearum and F. sporotrichioides. Yeast fungi, identified by us as representatives of the genus Candida, did not suppress the growth of toxigenic fungi. An isolate antagonist of Trichoderma Tr2 and A. flavus As03 was selected for further research.
UDC: УДК 631.421.2
Authors: Elena A. Skochilova; Elena S. Zakamskaya;
Introduction. Chlorine is one of the essential trace elements. The role of pigments in plant resistance to saliniza-tion is currently insufficiently studied. Some authors cite data on a pigments amount decrease during saliniza-tion, others have identified an increase or absence of significant changes in the pigment apparatus. The purpose of this research is to determine the chlorine ions influence on the amount of photosynthetic pigments in seed-lings of common oats and white mustard. Materials and methods. The research was carried out on the territory of the urban district “City of Yoshkar-Olaˮ. Three functional zones were identified: recreational, residential and southern industrial. Soil samples were taken in the urban soils of the roadside and on the lawns of the studied streets, and the mount of chlorine ions was analyzed by the argentometric method. The amount of photosyn-thetic pigments was determined spectrophotometrically. Common oats and white mustard were selected as test objects. Research results and their discussion. The research results revealed that the content of chlorine ions in the urban soils of the residential zone was 0.024 %, recreational – 0.017 %, southern industrial – 0.014 %. Ac-cording to the soils classification by the degree of salinity, all the studied urban soils belong to the non-saline category. A small amount of pigments was found in common oats and white mustard, regardless of the zone. In the seed-lings of the studied plants growing in the soils of the residential and recreational zones, the content of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoids was higher than in the southern industrial zone. Conclusion. The amount of chlorine ions in urban soils at the level of 0.017−0.024 % promoted an increase in the content of chlorophyll a and carotenoids in seedlings of common oats and white mustard.
UDC: УДК 330.59
Authors: Natalya M. Guryanova; Elvira I. Позубенкова; Yuna Yu. Rassypnova;
Introduction. Improving the quality of life is the main vector of social responsibility of any business. Purpose: analysis of key indicators of ensuring the quality of life of the population, and identification of negative trends in the formation of an integral assessment. Materials and methods. One of the four agrosoil zones of the Penza region – Vadinsko-Mokshanskaya – was chosen as the object of the study. It unites twelve administrative dis-tricts that are similar to each other in terms of the correspondence of agro-climatic resources to production needs. For the grouping, analysis, assessment and ranking of territorial units to ensure the quality of life of the population, elements of constructing cause-and-effect relationships, methods of analysis and assessment based on the absolute increase in key indicators, and methods of integration were used. Research results, discussion. All the most important factors affecting the quality of life of the population are grouped into four enlarged groups: population, level of education, quality of housing, demographic situation. Each enlarged group includes a corresponding set of indicators that most accurately reflect the standard of living of the population for the cor-responding group. For each aggregate group, a rating assessment of the quality of life of the population of the administrative units selected for the analysis was carried out. In turn, the rating assessment served as the basis for calculating the integral indicator of the quality of life of the population for each district, and determining the best and worst positions for administrative units. Conclusion. Some districts have a sufficient spread in the val-ue of the quality of life index in the context of certain groups of indicators. The most stable picture is observed in three administrative units, which, in turn, are leaders in the overall integral assessment of the quality of life in-dex. Districts that occupy the worst positions in the quality of life index need special attention in terms of stimu-lating fertility rates, migration in the framework of the development of social infrastructure and maintaining such groups of indicators as “Demographic situation”, “Quality of housing” and “Level of education”.
UDC: УДК 633:631.15
Authors: Alexander A. Ivanov; Svetlana N. Alekseeva; Tatyana N. Chuvorkina; Оksana F. Kadykova;
Introduction. In modern conditions, the most important task in the field of management of the agro-industrial complex of the region is to identify new growth points and competitive advantages of agricultural industries based on the rational use of available resources. The article analyzes the dynamics of the development of the production of leguminous crops and soybeans for the period from 1986 to 2020, the results of the analysis showed a significant reduction in the sown area of leguminous crops, this negative process continued until 2000, when the sown area of leguminous crops was 21 thousand hectares or 12 % of the average level of 1986−1990. Subsequently, the trend changed to positive. In general, the share of leguminous crops in the total structure of sown areas decreased from 7,7 % to 2,9 %. During the analyzed period, there were significant changes in the structure of the sown areas of leguminous crops, and its significant diversification took place. In 1986-1990, the predominant crops were peas and vetch-oat mixture for grain 86.2 and 13.1%, respectively, then on average for the period from 2016 to 2020, the share of lentils, lupine for grain, chickpeas increased signifi-cantly. In addition, soybeans became the leading legume crop in the Vadinsko-Mokshanskaya and Belinsko-Serdobskaya zones, the total area of this crop in the region in 2020 reached 42.7 thousand hectares, while in 2005 its sown area was 0.54 thousand hectares. The analysis of the production and placement of leguminous crops and soybeans showed that peas, lentils and soybeans have a significant development potential in the Vadinsko-Mokshanskaya and Belinsko-Serdobskaya zones, lentils, peas and lupin for grain in the Belinsko-Serdobskaya zone, lupin for grain, vetch and vetch-oat mixture should become a priority for the cultivation of legumes in the Nikolsko-Gorodishchenskaya zone. Further dynamic development of the production of leguminous crops and soybeans, based on minimizing the negative impact of the economic, agroecological and technological factors identified in the article that limit the expansion of production of these crops, is impossible without the imple-mentation of a set of scientific, production and organizational and economic measures outlined in the article.
UDC: УДК 336.1
Authors: Marina V. Kazakovtseva;
Introduction. One of the most important prerequisites for ensuring stable economic growth and creating condi-tions for ensuring the budgetary stability of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation is the introduc-tion of risk-oriented financial management methods into public administration practice. Research objective is to formulate the basic principles of building an effective system of risk-oriented state financial management, systematize and develop the stages of budgetary risk management, and identify methods of budgetary risk man-agement. Materials and methods. The work formulated and disclosed the basic principles of building an effec-tive state financial management system, justified measures for integrating financial management and a risk-based approach into the budget system of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. Research results, discussion. The study of forms and methods of introducing risk-oriented financial management into the practice of public administration allows ensuring the effectiveness of management decisions on the distribution of fi-nancial resources of the budget of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation, the effectiveness of using budget resources allocated for financing the provision of public services. Conclusion. The full implementation of risk-oriented financial management in public administration practice makes it possible to ensure the effec-tiveness of management decisions on the distribution of financial resources of the budget of the constituent en-tity of the Russian Federation, the effectiveness of using budget resources allocated to finance the provision of public services.
UDC: УДК 338.04
Authors: Tatyana V. Sarycheva; Maria G. Sergeeva ;
Introduction. The current pace of economic development and the continuous growth of global industrial pro-duction cause a significant increase in international demand for energy resources. Coal, which has a powerful proven resource base and high availability of offers on the market at relatively low costs, acts as the main ener-gy carrier capable of ensuring high rates of economic growth in developing countries. Given the size of devel-oping economies, changes in their supply and demand for coal fuel have a strong impact on the nature of inter-national trade. In this regard, it is relevant to study the structure and forecast the supply and demand of coal on the world energy market. Purpose: to analyze the changes taking place in the structure of coal imports and ex-ports by regions of the world. Materials and methods. The published statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service, the United Nations Statistics Division served as the information base for the claimed study. Methods of analysis and forecasting based on the use of linear and nonlinear regression models were used as research tools. Research results, discus-sion. The article proposes a method for analyzing and predicting structural changes in the volumes of coal im-ports and exports in the world regions, based on the use of basic and chain values of the Ryabtsev structural dif-ferences index and the construction of forecast estimates based on them using various regression models. This approach is effective from the point of view of statistical criteria and makes it possible to identify the countries in which the volumes of coal exports and imports are changing the most, as well as to determine the strength of the structural changes taking place. Conclusion. Since the structure of coal imports and exports by sub-regions reflects the general structure of the global coal industry and changes under the influence of its changes under the influence of technological and price trends, the global coal industry has undergone significant changes in the structure of import and export supplies of coal in the sub-regions. Analysis of the structural changes that have occurred in the import and export of coal raw materials has shown that mainly the structural shifts are caused by the change in the geographical centers of coal import and export between the sub-regions. In accord-ance with the forecasts based on the selected trend models, the structure of imports and exports of coal raw mate-rials by sub-regions will also continue to change.
UDC: УДК 657
Authors: Maria V. Stafievskaya;
Introduction. Today, the issues of accurate cost information are becoming more relevant. Management ac-counting becomes an important resource of such a system, one of the accounting and analytical tasks of which is the calculation of the cost of a production unit. The further pricing mechanism, determining the financial re-sult, depends on the correctness of the data. Reducing the cost of production will allow you to achieve the great-est effect with a minimum of costs. Consequently, the development and improvement of cost accounting and costing methods are relevant. The purpose of the article is to investigate the characteristics of the problem relat-ed to cost accounting in agricultural enterprises and to provide specific recommendations. Research methods are logical analysis, monographic, method of induction and deduction. Research results, discussion. The object of the research was the activities of an operating agricultural enterprise of the Republic of Mari El, specializing in the production of livestock products. The subject was a comparison of the traditional mechanism for calculat-ing the cost of agricultural livestock products with the ABC method. The article discusses the interpretation of such concepts as “costs” and “expenses” by modern economists. The conclusion is made about the need for an accurate understanding of these terms in order to competently manage the costs and expenses of the enterprise. The author’s vision of the formulation of the concepts under study is proposed. In practice, the mechanism for introducing the ABC method is disclosed, a comparative characteristic of the results of calculating the cost by the ABC method in comparison with the traditional one is shown. Conclusions are made about the advantages of the proposed method. The scientific novelty is the improvement of accounting tools when introducing the ABC method. A document has been developed to reflect information on the procedure for calculating the cost of livestock products. Recommendations are made on entering the necessary information into the accounting policy of the enterprise. Conclusion. After the introduction of the ABC method, the management will have the informational opportunity to analyze and manage the costs of the enterprise in order to improve production, expand the sales market, and increase competitiveness.