VESTNIK 4 (36) 2023

VESTNIK 4 (36) 2023
Date publication on the site:
2024-01-19 15:21:22
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Comparative analysis of the main parameters and operating modes of combined small-sized tillage units with various working bodies
UDC: 631.319.2
Authors: Nuriya N. Anderzhanova; Gubeidulla S. Yunusov; Andrey V. Mayorov;
The article presents a comparative analysis of the main parameters and modes of operation of combined small-sized tillage units with various working bodies. Introduction. Farms, which increasingly use tillers, are the basis of agriculture and make it possible to provide the population with high-quality food. Existing crop cultivation technologies lead to over-compaction of the top layer of soil due to the need for multiple passes of the tillerblock. As a result, the problem arose of developing complex combined mechanisms that allow several agrotechnical measures to be carried out in one pass. Materials and methods. Mari State University has developed various designs of small-sized combined levelers-grinders, as well as a segment milling cutter for a tillerblock. When developing the design and technological scheme of the combined tillage unit, the technical parameters of the tool and the conditions for performing various operations in one pass were taken into account. A study was conducted in the field to determine the main factors affecting the process of soil leveling through its crumbling. The following factors have a significant impact on this process: soil tillage depth, load on the roller and the speed of rotation of the roller rotor. To analyze the data obtained by the study and plotting, standard programs for personal computers were used ‒ Excel, Maple and STATISTICA. Research results, discussion. The experimental research plan included several stages, including conducting preliminary one-factor and full three-factor experiments. After carrying out one-factor experiments, the relationships between the indicators of soil lumpiness and such factors as the depth of treatment, engine speed and the load of the rolling roller during combined tillage were revealed. Mathematical dependences for tillers with various working bodies are obtained. Conclusion. Analyzing the results of experiments with rolling rollers on a combined tillage unit, it can be concluded that the spiral rolling roller for tillers provides better soil cultivation compared to other models.
Silicon dioxide as a multifunctional enterosorbent in pig farming and a matrix for the creation of new medicines
UDC: 615.682.2:615.326
Authors: Taras V. Gerunov; Lyudmila K. Gerunova; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Viktoriya A. Lapukhova;
Introduction. One of the problems of industrial animal husbandry is the quality of feed. Mycotoxins contained in feed are able to circulate through the food chain and pose a threat to human health. An additional risk factor is medicines (antiparasitic, antibacterial, etc.), residual amounts of which may be present in food. For this reason, the role of enterosorbents in animal husbandry is increasing. Purpose. To summarize the experience of using silicon dioxide in pig farming and evaluate the prospects for the creation of new medicines based on it. Materials and methods. The data was searched in eLIBRARY.RU, Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed databases, where “sorbent”, “enterosorbent”, “pigs”, “silicon dioxide”, and “silica” were used as search words. The manuscript included articles describing various effects of enterosorbents and features of the action of silicon dioxide. Research results and discussion. The results of the use of silicon dioxide in pig farming have been demonstrated. Silicon dioxide improves the digestibility of nutrients, increases the productivity of animals, including the indicators of average daily growth and post-slaughter weight of pigs, and improves the reproductive function of sows. The ability of silicon dioxide to bind mycotoxins, as well as to improve the protein-synthesizing function of the liver, has been proven in laboratory and industrial conditions. At the same time, it has an antioxidant effect and exhibits antibacterial properties. When added to the diet of piglets, it reduces the amount of E. coli in the feces, and eliminates signs of diarrhea. Silicon dioxide can be used as a matrix for modification by various compounds, including antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs, which increases their pharmacological effectiveness at lower doses. Conclusion. Silicon dioxide is used as a multifunctional enterosorbent in pig breeding and is of interest as a matrix for the production of modified drugs with a wide range of pharmacological effects.
Influence of antioxidate therapy on the bodies of dry cows and calves resulting from them
UDC: 619:547:616-08:636.2
Authors: Olga A. Gracheva; Ilsur G. Galimzyanov; Zoya G. Churina; Dina M. Mukhutdinova;
Introduction. Recently, much attention has been paid to the use of antioxidant agents, the effectiveness of which is associated with the effect on the universal pathogenetic link ‒ oxidative stress that develops in metabolic diseases. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of succinic acid and butophosphan on prooxidant-antioxidant status in newly-calved cows and on the organism of newborn calves obtained from them. Materials and Methods. Scientific research was carried out in 2023 in the farm Churin P. I. of the Chistopol rergion, Republic of Tatarstan on Holstein-Friesian cows aged 3‒5 years, of average and above average fatness, body weight 500‒700 kg, with average annual dairy productivity of 9000 kg, divided into two groups. One of them was treated with “Yantovet” at a dose of 20 ml per animal, in the last month of pregnancy three times at a dose of 20 ml/head with an interval of 7‒10 days. The second group served as a control. Indicators of lipid peroxidation were determined in whole blood of animals. Malonic dialdehyde was determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance assay. Superoxide dismutase activity was determined by spectrophotometric method, according to the degree of inhibition of the quercetin oxidation reaction. Catalase activity was determined by the Korolyuk method. Research results, discussion. The use of “Yantovet” in a dose of 20 ml /head to dry cows three times in the last month of pregnancy helps to reduce the processes of lipid peroxidation and increase the activity of the enzymatic antioxidant system of the blood in cows, and as a result, increase the morphofunctional status of calves at birth, as evidenced by a higher body weight at birth of calves by 16.5 %, an increase in the intensity of growth by 4.6 %, a decrease in the number of cases of gastrointestinal diseases in the neonatal period by 13.4 %.
The effect of glucono-delta-lactone on the quality indicators of cream cheeses
UDC: 637.3.05
Authors: Maria V. Dolgorukova ; Okhotnikov Sergey I.;
Introduction. Recently, a multifunctional additive glucono-delta-lactone (GDL) has been used in the food industry, used as a color stabilizer, acidifier, baking powder, preservative, and so on. The article is devoted to the study of the effect of administered doses of glucone-delta-lactone on the quality indicators of cream cheeses. Purpose: to study of the effect of GDL on physico-chemical and organoleptic parameters of model products. Materials and methods. The objects of the study were cow’s milk-raw materials, skimmed milk-raw materials, cream-raw materials, calcium chloride, rennet, table salt, glucono-delta-lactone (E575), sourdough “Skvaska”. For the study, raw cow’s milk was selected that meets the requirements of TR CU 033/2013 “On the safety of milk and dairy products” and GOST 31449-2013 “Raw cow's milk. Technical specifications”. Sampling of dairy raw materials and the developed product, determination of quality indicators of raw materials and the finished product were determined by standard methods in accordance with the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation. Research results, discussion. A model product was obtained, for the formation of a cheese clot of which glucono-delta-lactone was used instead of calcium chloride. All cheese samples were distinguished by high organoleptic indicators, however, the highest complex score was obtained by prototype 2, into which GDL was injected in an amount of 2 % of the mass of raw materials. A new product has been obtained in terms of quality, which is not inferior to cream cheeses produced using traditional technology. Conclusion. The use of GDL in the production of cream cheese improves the formation of a clot in pasteurized milk, reduces the clotting time and increases the density of the clot. The model products met the requirements of the current regulatory and technical documentation. The recommended dose of GDL application is 2 % by weight of raw materials.
Migration of phosphorus along the soil-plant gradient
UDC: 631.423.3:633.22
Authors: Elena S. Zakamskaya;
Introduction. Phosphorus is one of the main biogenic elements and is necessary for all living organisms. Soil fertility depends on the amount of necessary elements and their availability to plants. The availability of mobile phosphorus in the republic’s soil is 170.7 mg/kg. The biological removal of nutrients determines the quality of crop production intended for animal husbandry. One of the species widely used in cereal and legume mixtures is cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.). In this regard, the purpose of our work was to study the content of mobile phosphorus in the soil and its accumulation by Dactylis glomerata plants. Materials and methods. Trial plots were laid on the dry meadows of the Republic of Mari El. Soil sampling and sample preparation were carried out according to GOST Mobile phosphorus in the soil was determined by the Chirikov method in the modification of the TsINAO (GOST 26210-91). The phosphorus content in the aboveground organs of Dactylis glomerata was determined spectrophotometrically by the “blue” phosphor-molybdenum complex. The coefficients of biological absorption and transition were calculated. Research results and discussion. The concentration of mobile phosphorus in the soil varies from 40 to 230 mg/kg; total phosphorus in Dactylis glomerata was 0.545, 1.389, 1.099 mg/% at PP 1, 2, 3, respectively. In the roots, the total phosphorus content varies between 0.078‒0.225 mg/%, in stems – 0.134-0.360 mg/%; in leaves – 0.135-0.387 mg/%; in inflorescences – 0.198‒0.425 mg/%. Conclusion. The phosphorus content depends on the specific territory, the plant organ and on the combined action of these factors. In plants, there is an increase in the accumulation of total phosphorus from the roots to the inflorescences. The biological absorption of phosphorus by medium-aged plants of Dactylis glomerata is inversely proportional to the content of these elements in the soil.
Relationship of milk productivity of Russian heavy draft mares with measurements and physique indices
UDC: 635.15:636.082.251
Authors: Andrey V. Onegov; Evgeniy D. Chirgin;
Introduction. Directed selection of horses for milk production over a period of more than forty years has made it possible to obtain a population of Russian heavy daft mares with the highest productive qualities. The purpose of this research was to establish the relationship between the milk production of mares, their measurements and physique indices. Material and research methods. The studies were carried out at the kumys complex of ZAO PZ “Semenovsky”, Republic of Mari El, on mares of the Russian heavy draft breed. 68 lactating mares aged from 4 to 16 years were selected for research. For all studied animals, measurements were determined, physique indices were calculated, the milk productivity of mares was established, and the influence of the mares’ exterior characteristics on milk production was assessed. Results and discussion. The assessment based on measurements indicates the typical body type of the studied population of horses. Mares have a long body, moderately wide and quite deep; with medium-length legs and a well-developed croup. Mares of a milking herd have the body type desirable for dairy horse breeding. The average milk production of mares was 3370 kg of milk over 210 days of lactation. Studies have found that high-milk mares have a less massive physique, they are more elongated, slightly more angular and have an increased pastern girth. We also established an average positive correlation between milk production and body length (+0.42), metacarpal girth (+0.42), format (+0.43) and metacarpal girth (+0.45) indices. A negative average correlation was established between milk production and chest girth (-0.31), chest width (-0.39), indices of chest girth (-0.52) and compactness (-0.39). Conclusion. An increase in milk production in mares is accompanied by an increase in body length, width and length of the croup, chest depth and pastern girth. Growth measurements had no effect on milk productivity. An increase in the girth and width of the chest had a negative impact on the milk production of mares.
Sustainability of the pigment complex of Dactylis glomerata to environmental pollution by vehicles
UDC: 631.421.2
Authors: Elena A. Skochilova;
Introduction. The most important task in urban landscaping is the creation of lawns. When organizing lawns, it is necessary to select a grass mixture that is most sustainable to recreational loads. The purpose of the research is to study the sustainability of Dactylis glomerata in ontogenesis based on the photosynthetic pigments content depending on environmental pollution degree by vehicles. Materials and methods. The object of the study is Dactylis glomerata L. Plant material was collected in the Republic of Mari El. The selection of study districts was based on traffic load data. As a result, three study areas were identified in the Soviet district of the Mari El Republic: dry mixed-grass meadow dominated by D. glomerata (control area); in Yoshkar-Ola: Pavlenko Street (low pollution area), Vodoprovodnaya Street (moderate pollution area). D. glomerata plants were studied in virginal (v) and middle-aged generative states (g2). The amount of photosynthetic pigments was measured using the spectrophotometric method. Research results and discussion. The research results showed that there were no vehicles in control area, in low pollution area 96 vehicles were observed, in moderate pollution area – 1200 units of vehicles. As pollutants in the atmosphere increase, the content of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves v and g2 of D. glomerata plants decreases. Based on the chlorophyll content in D. glomerata in the studied areas, the following row can be compiled in descending order: control area > low pollution area > moderate pollution area. Conclusion. With an increase in the content of pollutants in the atmospheric air, the amount of chlorophylls a and b in the leaves v and g2 of D. glomerata plants decreases. That’s why it is necessary to sow D. glomerata in the areas far from sources of pollution.
The effect of chlorella suspension in combination with probiotic on productivity, milk quality indicators and immune status of goats
UDC: 637.5.04
Authors: Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Liliya M. Sufyanova;
Introduction. Interest in dairy goat breeding, as an integral and important part of the livestock industry, has been growing steadily in recent years. At the same time, the dairy productivity of goats is largely determined by the balance and usefulness of the diet. Materials and methods. The goat-breeding farm of the Lukoz agroholding in the Sernursky district of the Republic of Mari El was chosen as the basis for the experimental study, where dairy goats at the stage of second lactation were selected according to the principle of analogues, which were divided into 3 groups of 20 heads each. The control group was kept on a regular diet. Goats belonging to the experimental groups received chlorella suspension daily with water at the rate of 40 ml per animal. The second experimental group additionally received a probiotic Bacillus subtilis at the rate of 10 g per animal. Every 10 days, milk productivity was analyzed by control milking and blood and milk samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Results and discussion. The results of the study showed a significant increase in the number of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in the blood of experimental groups of animals. In addition, there was an increase in the concentration of glucose, total protein, albumins and globulins in the blood serum, which indicates the activation of metabolic processes, including carbohydrate metabolism. The addition of chlorella suspension to the diet of animals has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the body’s immune system. Conclusion. The use of chlorella suspension in goat feeding diets helps strengthen the immune system and increase animal milk yields, and also increases the content of total protein, casein, fat and minerals in milk. This is an important factor for dairy producers, as it allows them to increase the quality and value of the resulting product.
Laboratory studies of environmental objects in assessing the safety of anthrax burials
UDC: 619:616.98:579.852.11(470.51)
Authors: Olga V. Trudolyubova; Yuri G. Krysenko; Ivan S. Ivanov; Roman F. Gabdrakhmanov;
Introduction. Anthrax burials are a potential source of the causative agent of anthrax Bacillus anthracis (hereinafter ‒ B. anthracis), which is able to persist in environmental objects for a long time. The soil is one of the main reservoirs for this microorganism. At the same time, the viability of the pathogen in environmental objects depends on a number of factors. Anthrax burials belong to objects of the 1st hazard class of sanitary classification and have sanitary protection zones aimed at ensuring the safety of the population during the operation of the facility in normal mode and entailing a number of restrictions on the use of territories. With the termination of the existence of sanitary protection zones of anthrax burials or their reduction, it is important to understand the possibility of using land plots without restriction. To do this, it is necessary to conduct a number of studies, including laboratory ones, aimed at establishing the content of potentially dangerous chemical and biological substances for humans. Purpose ‒ to establish the possibility of using land plots outside the boundaries of the established reduced sanitary protection zones of soil foci of anthrax for economic purposes. Materials and methods. The paper uses scientific methods of empirical research ‒ description, measurement, comparison, as well as general logical methods and techniques of research ‒ analysis, synthesis, analogy. Results, discussion. It is established that chemical, bacteriological, parasitological and entomological indicators of the soil of the studied objects do not exceed the permissible hygienic standards. The causative agent of anthrax B. anthracis has not been identified in environmental objects (soil, water, air). Conclusion. Land plots located outside the border of the established sanitary protection zones of anthrax burials located on the territory of the Udmurt Republic and subjected to research may be put into operation in accordance with the types of permitted use.
Forecasting financial instrument quotations using neural networks
UDC: 330.4
Authors: Marina V. Kazakovtseva; Ekaterina V. Konakova;
Introduction. An important aspect for investors and traders is accurate forecasts, which are of great importance for making decisions about buying, selling or holding shares, as well as for determining the optimal investment strategy and risk management. To date, neural networks and machine learning techniques have become increasingly popular and effective in a variety of fields, including forecasting. One of the most important areas of practical use of neural networks are forecasting tasks, namely, forecasting time series on the stock market, predicting the exchange rate, building a forecast of electricity consumption, predicting the solvency of creditors, loads of energy systems, etc. Neural networks can be used to solve almost any kind of problem, including in the absence of an obvious mathematical model or a lack of data for the effective use of statistical methods. The paper discusses the use of the exponential smoothing method and neural networks in forecasting problems. The purpose of the work is to study and evaluate the effectiveness of the exponential smoothing method and neural networks for forecasting time series using the example of PhosAgro stock quotes. Materials and methods. The method of exponential smoothing is used for preliminary prediction of historical data, and neural networks are used to improve the forecasting accuracy. Research results, discussion. Exponential smoothing and neural networks lead to improved forecasting accuracy for PhosAgro stock quotes. Conclusion. Applying exponential smoothing and neural networks to forecasting tasks can help improve the accuracy of stock price forecasts and other financial time series.
Withdrawal of capital abroad in the context of financial and economic security of the state
UDC: 336.73
Authors: Shvetsov Andrey V.; Natalia K. Shvetsova;
Introduction In recent decades, there has been an accelerated dynamics of capital withdrawal abroad. Countries around the world are facing growing capital flows that flow across borders in search of new opportunities and profitable investments. This process had a significant impact on the economic situation in various countries and caused a discussion about its causes, consequences and possible ways of regulation. One of the main reasons for the withdrawal of capital is the desire of entrepreneurs and investors to get higher returns abroad. Instead of staying in their country, where risks and uncertainty may be higher, they choose to transfer their capital to a place where business conditions are more favorable or where new markets and technologies are available. In addition, some entrepreneurs may seek to minimize tax liabilities by moving their assets outside of their country. However, the withdrawal of capital can also have negative consequences for the country's economy, negatively affecting the economic security of the state. It can lead to a decrease in investment in the local economy, job cuts and loss of tax revenue. In addition, it can create an imbalance in the distribution of wealth and increase dependence on foreign capital. The purpose of the study is to analyze the current economic situation based on information from the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, data from the Russian Statistics Agency (Rosstat), analysis of foreign sources on this issue, as well as to develop proposals that contribute to measures to regulate the withdrawal of capital and ensure the sustainable development of the domestic economy. Materials and methods. The study analyzes the official statistical data of Rosstat and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation, examines the regulatory framework of this problem. Conclusion. The analysis of the materials presented in the article allows us to conclude about the ineffective policy of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation regarding the key rate, the fight against inflation and the withdrawal of capital abroad.
Energy intensity and energy efficiency of the domestic economy in the context of socio-economic development of the regions
UDC: 338.2
Authors: Andrey V. Shvetsov; Natalia K. Shvetsova;
Introduction. Energy intensity is the amount of energy required to perform a job. This concept is used in various fields, including physics, chemistry, ecology and economics. In economics, energy intensity is the amount of energy needed to produce a unit of a good or service. It can be measured in kilowatt hours (kWh) per US dollar or other currency. Energy intensity is an important indicator of energy efficiency and can help in determining energy conservation and sustainable development strategies. The article characterizes the state of the domestic economy in terms of energy intensity and energy efficiency based on statistics from Rosstat in 2021, and also shows the structure of the dependence of GRP energy intensity on a number of socio-economic factors. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of the energy intensity of the GDP of the Russian Federation, as well as the dependence of the dynamics of the energy intensity of the GRP of the subjects of the Russian Federation on the main socio-economic factors in the available time interval. Materials and methods. The work uses materials from periodicals, mass media, official data on the socio-economic state of the domestic economy, including in the context of the subjects of the Russian Federation. Research results, discussions. Due to the fact that for a long time the domestic economy was considered a raw material, it became necessary to evaluate this conclusion at the present stage of economic and geopolitical development. Since the energy intensity can be different for different types of work or products and depends on many factors, such as production technology, materials used, climate, etc., it is necessary to investigate this indicator both in time and geographical (territorial) aspect. Conclusion. The results show that such dependencies exist, however, in order to obtain more accurate and high-quality models, it is necessary to more accurately determine the subject composition for each model using clustering.