VESTNIK 3 (23) 2020
- VESTNIK 3 (23) 2020
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- 2020-10-26 11:46:14
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VARIABILITY OF SEEDS MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AS A BASIS FOR SELECTION FROM DILL AND CARROT VARIETY POPULATIONS
Authors: Aleksander F. Bukharov; Dmitry N. Baleev; Maria I. Ivanova; Fedor O. Fefelov; Nadezhda A. Eremina;
Abstract. Dill and carrots are characterized by extended flowering and seed ripening. The sowing quality of their seeds largely depends on their location within the plant, the development of the embryo. The material for the study was the seeds of individually selected plants of four varieties of carrots and dill grown in open ground in the conditions of the Moscow region. Seed and endosperm lengths were measured using a caliper. The embryo length was measured using a Micromed 1 microscope (Micromed, China) and a DCM 300 MD video microscope (Microscope Digital, China) at × 40 magnification using Scope Photo (Image Software V. 3.1.386). The level of variability of the linear dimensions of all seed morphological elements was shown. The maximum value f the coefficient of variation (V = 22.8 %) was noted for the embryo. Significant differences were revealed in the degree of manifestation of the basic morphometric parameters of the fruit, including the length of the seed, endosperm and embryo. Families were selected that consistently exceeded the average population values for all three studied parameters. The role of the IE/E index characterizing the degree of embryo malformation (embryo length relative to the endosperm), which is an important morphometric parameter, is shown. Samples with a maximum value of this indicator were 1.5 times higher than the average grade. It was noted that the identification of the causes of heterospermia in linear dimensions (including the contribution of hereditary and non-hereditary factors in the formation of these characters) deserves a detailed study.
SUBSTANTIATION OF A NEW METABOLIC DRUG DEVELOPMENT
Authors: Olga A. Gracheva; Fazil A. Medetkhanov; Ilsur G. ,Kazan State Academy of Veterinary Medicinenamed after N. E. Bauman, Kazan, Russia, ORCID:https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5833-7915, email@example.com Galimzyanov; Dina M. Mukhutdinova; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
Abstract. The use of combined drugs enhances organ protection, since when exposed to target organs, a com-plementary effect is observed due to the presence of physiological and pharmacological synergismbetween drugs of different classes. The main objective of any pharmaceutical development is to obtain a high-quality,effective and safe drug. When carrying out the pharmaceutical development of pharmacological preparations, during composition development studies and previous studies, it is necessary to carefully study three important interrelated aspects, namely:stabilization, compatibility and biological activity. This publication discusses the prospects for the pharmaceutical developmentof a new combined drugin the form of aqueous solution, containing 1 % succinic acid and 10 % butafosfan. The drug is designed for oral and parenteral administration. For injection use, an aqueous solution of novocaine in a 0.5 % concentration is included in the composition to relieve pain. There are no data on the use of butafosfanand succinic acid in one dosage form in the literature. The active ingredients are able to stimulate energy metabolism, reduce the damaging effect of hypoxia and oxidative stress, thereby the combination has greater pharmacological activity. To select the necessary conditions when developing the technology for producing the solution, the chemical properties, stability, and compatibility of these pharmaceutical substances were studied. The identification of chemicals in solutions and amixture of the two ingredients was carried out by mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. It was shown that the substances of succinic acid and butafosfan do not interact with each other and with novocaine, making it possible to obtain a combined drug. The stability of the resulting solution was noted after 12 months of storage in a dark place at a temperature of +5±2 °C.
Authors: Sergey A. Zamyatin; Raisiya B. Maksimova;
Abstract. Humusis the most important indicator of soil fertility. The main indicators of the soil largely depend on its quantity and quality: thermal, water, air properties, absorption capacity, biological activity. Plants, as biologicalobjects, throughout their lives not only use nutrients and moisture from the soil, but also enrich it by the excretionfromroots, dropping aging leaves, symbiosis with microorganisms, as a result of leaving the root mass and above-ground plant debris after harvesting. At the same time, asignificant part of the nutrients returnes to the soil, and the humus content in the soil increases. Crop residues and the root mass of crops are sometimes the only source of organic matter in the soil, an energy resource for the development of soil microflora. The potential for using organic residues is best manifested in crop rotation with proper crop rotation. This makes it possible to regulate the intake of fresh organic matterof different quantity and qualityinto the soil. The article presents thestudy of the effect of crop-root residues on soil fertility in a six-field crop rotation. The aimof the research is to conducta comparative assessment of the size of the input of plowedplant residues in the crop rotation and to determine their soil-improving efficiency. The experimental part of the work was performed on a stationary site of the experimental field of the Mari Agricultural Research Institute –branch of the Federal Agricultural Scientific Center of the North-East named after N.V.Rudnitsky. The experiment was repeated 4 times, andwas laid down by the method of split plots. As a result of the studies, it was revealed that in the control variant (grain-grass rota-tion) when using clover for 1 year, on average 3.02 t/ha of crop-root residues per year wasreceived. The greatest accumulation of organic matter was in the III crop rotation -3.37 t/ha. The enrichment of the soil with organic matter in the form of roots and stubble residues against the background of mineral fertilizers made it possible to maintain a deficit-free humus balance in the topsoil during four rotations of the studied crop rotations.
CROP ROTATION AS THE MAIN FACTOR OF ADAPTIVE-AND-LANDSCAPE LAND USE
Authors: Lyudmila M. Kozlova; Fyodor A. Popov; Eugenia N. Noskova;
Abstract.Introduction. The crop rotation system, including their various types and species, is a fundamental link of the adaptive-and-landscape farming system. Science-based crop rotations have a positive impact on agro-landscape, as they occupy a large proportion of agricultural land and play a decisiverole in maintaining a sus-tainable economicbalance. The aim of the workis to develop the structure of sown areas and the system of crop rotation for adaptive-and-landscape farming of the agricultural enterprise. Materials and methods. The structure of crop rotation is considered on the example of farm “Bobino-Mˮof the Slobodskoy district of the Kirov region of the Russian Federation. It was carried out according to the method of development of adaptive-and-landscape farming systems in the farms of the Kirov region (2006) and the method of design of basic elements of adaptive-and-landscape farming systems (2010). Results of researches. This agricultural firm is a large developing enter-prise specializing in milk production. The area of farmland is 3,247 hectares, over 2,200 hectares of which are arable land. The developed sowing structure will contribute to stable grain production at increasing the yield of cereals to 0.41‒0.95t/ha and providing the available livestock with the necessary amount of all types of feed. The scientifically based system of crop rotation is composed taking into account the needsof cattle in feed and includes 3 field and 1 feed croprotation. A deficit-freebalance of humus in newly developed crop rotations is achieved by introducing into the sowing area structure of green manure fallows (hybrid clover, annual grasses), postcut and stubblecruciferous crops (oilseed radish and spring rape), sowings of perennial herbs (meadow clover), ploughing grain straw and clover aftergrowth. The analysis of the ecological efficiency of the farm confirmed that its stabilization requires the development of an adaptive-and-landscape farming system with all planned measures for the introduction of soil-protective grain-grass crop rotations, the withdrawal of disturbed land, a complex of works to improve soil fertility, afforestation and the organization of forest belts.
THE EFFECTOF A BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ADDITIVEBASED ON AMARANTHEXTRACT ON MEAT PRODUCTIVITYOF BROILER CHICKEN
Authors: Ellada K. Рapunidi; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Galina S. Stepanova; Svetlana N. Savdur;
Abstract. Modern poultry farming requires science-based and rational feeding of poultry, which is a necessary condition for the full realization of their potential with intensive use. This explains the increased attention of specialists and scientists to the conditions of rational poultry feeding, which is the basis for further develop-ment of poultry farming. In modern conditions of intensive poultry farming, a number of factors are unavoid-able (high population density, lack of natural lighting, gas pollurionof premises, microbiological contamination). All this leads to a decrease in the natural resistance of poultry, and without the use of special drugs and additives is the cause of premature loss of livestock due to death or forced slaughter, reduced productivity, reproductive ability and deterioration in product quality. Increasing the natural resistance of poultry and its adaptive potential in production conditions is one of the most important tasks in modern conditions of intensive poultry farming . One of the available ways to strengthen the feed base of poultry farming is the use of so-called non-traditional feeds. This is especially important now, when the feed industry is experiencing a shortage of basic raw materials, and, first of all, protein sources. Taking into account that for the majority of biologically active substances of the green mass of plants, which play an important role as antioxidants and biostimulants, there is practically no alternative artificial replacement, one of the promising and urgent ways to solve the problem of increasing the natural resistance of poultry is to search for new effective and safe additives and preparations among plant products[3;4]. The use of amaranth in the livestock industry is becoming more and morepopular every year. A great advantage of amaranth over forage crops is its high biological productivity. Amaranth is a promising type of plant raw material for the production of medicinal phytopreparations used in veterinary medicine. The inclusion of amaranth in the diets of farm animals and poultry contributes to increasing the productivity and safety of livestock. The article reflects the results of research on the effectiveness of the use of biologically active additives of plant origin based on amaranth to increase the meat productivity of broiler chickens.
THE EFFECT OF MILK-PROTEIN COMPLEX “MILANA 100”ON THE BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF MUTTON MUSCLE TISSUE
Authors: Ekaterina A. Savinkova; Tatiana V. Kabanova;
Abstract.The use of fundamentally new national, non-traditional processes and technologies that regulate the initial properties of raw materials and increase their quality, as well as the nutritional and biological value of meat and products from it, is rapidly increasing. The analysis of manypublications shows that multicomponent brines used in traditional technologies will be able to make a special contribution to solving this problem.In this regard, it is of interest to study the production technology of a traditional product for the residents of the Mari El Republic using multicomponent brine and expand the range of mutton food that combine high biological value and refined taste qualities. The strategy of the lamb meat production is based on economic feasibility in the main sheep-breedingcountries, the price of lamb is 3.1–5.2 times higher in comparison with adult sheepmeat. Multi-component brines used in the production of meat products are complex dispersed systems that improve the func-tional and technological properties of raw materialsand the quality of finished products. The purpose of these studies was to assess the physicochemical changes that occur with protein macromolecules during the salting process. To study the hydrolytic changes in protein substances of meat at the end of cyclic massaging, we studiedchanges in protein, non-protein and polypeptide nitrogen using a milk-protein complex. This complex is a specific composition of various types of animal origin proteins. It has a high protein content of about 60 %, has certain technological properties and can be purposefully used for specific technological tasks.
TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF A CONSORTIUM OF MICROORGANISMS FOR USE TO IMPROVE FEED QUALITY
Authors: Anna M. Tremasova; Ilgiz I. Idiyatov; Yuri M. Tremasov; Arthur I. Eroshin;
Abstract.High rates of production in animal husbandry can be achieved by a set of measures to improve the quality, reduce nutrient loss and toxicity of feed during their procurement, processing and long-term storage.The purposeof the workis a toxicological assessment of a new consortium of microorganisms intended for use asa means to increase the safety and reducethe toxicity of feed and feed raw materials.The experiments used a consortium of microorganisms, which is a mixture of cultures: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Bacillus subtilis. The toxicological assessment of the consortium was carried out by the express method on the daily culture of stylonichia (Stylonychia mytilus), as well as by determining the parameters of toxicity, virulence and toxigenicity in white mice and rats. The cell suspension of a consortium of microorganisms within 3 hours of exposure with stylonychia did not have a toxic effect on them, which charac-terizes it as low toxic. Oral administration of the cell suspension of the consortium to white rats did not lead to signs of intoxication and death, which indicates its harmlessness. The absence of visible changes in the clinical status and death of white mice with intraperitoneal and repeatedoral administration of a suspension of the consortium testified to its avirulence. It was found that the consortium under study does not contain significant amounts of endotoxins and, when administered intraperitoneally to white mice, does not cause signs of intoxica-tion and death, therefore, does not have a toxic effect in the test dose. A negative reaction to parenteral admin-istration of a consortium centrifugate to experimental animals indicates the absence of exotoxins in the culture fluid in quantities that can cause a toxic effect, and characterizes the studied consortium as non-toxigenic. It was found that a consortium of microorganisms, consisting of cultures Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Bacillus subtilis, pre-selected for use in order to increase digestibility and reduce the toxicity of plant-based feeds, is safe and can be used in further studies.
RESULTS OF THE STUDY OF PROMISING OAT LINES OF COMPETITIVE VARIETY TESTING
Authors: Marina V. Tulyakova; Galina A. Batalova; Svetlana V. Permyakova; Tatyana P. Gradoboeva;
Abstract. Obtaining not the maximum, but a constantly high yield due to greater adaptabilityto environmental conditions and various stresses is becoming one of the priorities of modern agricultural plants breeding. In the conditionsof the Kirov region and a considerable part of the Volga-Vyatka region, the increased acidity of sod-podzolic soils dominating in thesoil cover has negative impact on productivity. The purpose of the research is to screen theperspective selection lines of covered oats resistant to abiotic and biotic factors with improved charac-teristics of productivityand grain quality. Materials and methods. The results of studying the lines of covered oats competitive varietytesting in 2017-2019 on cultivated (pH 6.4) and alumo-acidic(pH 4.05; Al3+12.60 mg/100g of soil) sod-podzolic soils of Falenskayabreeding station –branch of the FASC of the North-Eastare presented. Agro-climatic conditions of vegetation of 2017 and 2018 were favorable for the development of oats plants(HTI = 1.86and 1.30 respectively); year 2019 was characterized by alow temperatureregimeand excessive mois-ture (HTI = 1.91). Research results. Lines I-4808, I-4592, I-4794, I-4695, I-4729 with the increased productivity on cultivated and alumo-acidicsod-podzolic soils were selected.Resistance to edaphic stress intermsof depression is noted atline I-4729, lines I-4818, I-4828, I-4845 wereselected according to productivitycharacterictics. High test weight (541g/l), resistance to loose smut on natural and artificial infectious backgrounds (9 points) werenoted at line I-4845. Lines I-4592, I-4595, I-4808, I-4729had the increased grain protein content (12.97; 12.60 %). Conclusion. The adaptive cultivar of covered oats Falenets(line I-4808) combining high productivity (average 7.21 t/hectare) and grain quality (test weight of 522 g/l, hulledness of 25.7 %, the protein content of 12.90 %, fat –3.13 %) with resistance to a loose smut, lodging and grain sheddingis transferred to the State test.
THE EFFECT OF PRE-PLANT TREATMENT OF TUBERS AND VEGETATINGPLANTS ON POTATO LATE BLIGHTRESISTANCE
Authors: Elena Yu. Udalova;
Abstract. The two-factor field experience was laid in 2017–2019 on the experimental field of the Mari Research Institute of Agriculture by the method of split plots in four repetitions. The purposeof the work was to study the effect of various systems of protection against diseases on the yield and quality of products on two varieties of potatoes. This article presents the results of research aimed at reducing the loss of potato harvest from diseases. In the process of work, it was found that pre-planting treatment of potato tubers and triple treatment with fungicides during plant vegeta-tion can significantly inhibit the spread of potato late blight and showed high stability of the use of chemicals in the fight against late blight. The use of chemical fungicides Ridomil, Ordan, Metaxil helped to reduce the development of potato late blight and the spread of diseases in all studied variants. High resistance to the spread of late blight was noted in the second variant: Ordan fungicide spraying in the budding phase amounted to 6.0 points, before closing the tops with Metaxil fungicide -6.3 points on all varieties. In other cases, the resistance of potato plants to late blight was moderate. The greatest efficiency (on average for three years) was on the options with pre-planting treatment of potato tubers and triple (2–3 true leaves, budding phase and before closing the tops) treatment of plants during vegetation, the tuber yield in this variant increased. According to the results of our research, it was found that the use of chemical fungicides on potatoes reduces the development and spread of late blight.
MAIN RESULTS AND PRIORITY DIRECTIONS OF BREEDING WINTER GRAIN CROPS IN BELARUS
Authors: Eroma P. Urban; Fedor I. Privalov; Stanislav I. Gordey;
Abstract. The Belarusian cultivars of cereal crops currently occupy more than 75 % ofthe republic’s arable land; and more than 93 % of winter rye. Seventy Belarusian cultivars are registered abroad, including 28 in Russia. The purpose of the research is the selectionof high-yielding cultivars, considering the directions of their economic use, adapted to the soil and ecological conditions of the Republic of Belarus. Materials and methods.The studieswereconducted in RPC NAS of Belarus for Arable Farming on the sod-podzolic sandy loam and loose sandy loam soil (humus content 2.02–2.53 %, phosphorus 153–257 mg/kg of the soil, potassium242–289 mg/kg, pH 5.86–6.2) with winter rape asa predecessor. Results and discussion.The productivitypotential of RPC's cultivars exceeded 10 t/ha in production. In the ecological test, which was carried out in Germany, RPC’s cultivarsexceeded the German onesin productivity, baking qualities, winter hardiness and resistance to diseases (brown rust, septoriosis). Winter triticale cultivars Impulse, Prometheus, Amulet, Dynamo form productivity of 7.0 t/ha and higher; the hybrid rye cultivars Lobel-103, Galinka, Plisa have productivity of8.0–9.0 t/ha and higher. The highly heterosis F1 hybrid of a winter diploid rye Belgi has beentransferred to State Test of the Republic of Belarus. New techniques of creation of initial material based on the use of protein and DNA markers are developed; methods of selection of breeding valuable genotypes at early stages of breeding with specifiedparameters are improved for acceleration and increase in efficiency of breeding process.In the conditions of the Republic, the majority of foreign cultivars provide theraised yield only in the first 2–3 years of their reproduction (before elite); they concede in the subsequent on productivity to domestic cultivars. During wintering, they perish from low temperature impact. Conclusion.The highly effective system of breeding and seed farming of winter cereal crops created in RPC NAS of Belarus for Arable Farming provides producers of agrarian and industrial complex of Belarus with necessary high-quality cultivar complex with the required economic and biological indicatorsof quality; it is a basis of their competitiveness in the world market of cultivars.
IMPACT OF BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPRING BARLEY ROOT ROT IN THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL
Authors: Tuan Anh Hoang; Olga G. Maryina-Chermnykh;
Abstract. Introduction.Spring barley is a pliable and precociousgrain crop. It is an important raw material base for agricultural production and human consumption. Barley culture is adapted for growing in any agro-climatic conditions and on various soils. At the same time, its cultivation andyield increase are influenced by various agroecological factors, where the system of protection from harmful organisms has the greatest impact. The use of environmental protection against diseases of various etiologies, in this case against root rot, is of particular importance forthe stabilization and functioning of the agricultural system of grain crops.Objective: to study the effectiveness of protectionsystemof Pseudobacterin-2 and Bioagro-BF biologiesfrom root rot and their effect on spring barleyyield.Materials and methods.The research was carried out using field and laboratory methods at the Mari State University, the objects of research werespring barley Vladimir and biologiesPseudobacterin-2 and Bioagro-BF.The research results, discussion. Studies conducted in the Republic of Mari El on spring bar-ley crops using biologies Pseudobacterin-2 based on Pseudomonas aureofaciens, BS 1393 strain and Bioagro-BF base of Bacillus pumilus, strain 3-B, have shown that seed treatment, both separatelyand in conjunction with spraying crops during the growing season, reducingthe rate of root rot infection in the germination-tillering phase and increasing it in earing-milk ripeness period, revealed the minimum disease development on the infectedorgans from 39.06 to 41.31 %during this period, providing a positive increase in barley yield up to 64.4 t/ha.Conclusion. Biological preparations Pseudobacterin-2 and Bioagro-BF during seed treatment, both separately and in conjunction with croptreatment during the growing season, reduced the development of root rot on spring barley and increased the yield.
STRATEGIC MEASURES TOIMPROVE THE EFFICIENCY OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGIONAL AGRO-INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER
Authors: Victor A. Golovin; Anatolii A. Smirnov;
Abstract. Introduction.Two versions of the strategy of socio-economic development of the Mari El Republic are considered –Strategy for long-term socio-economic development ofthe Mari El Republic (2008–2025), and the Strategy for socio-economic development of the Mari El Republic for the period up to 2030 (2018–2030). Their comparative analysis was carried out according to various criteria, including the peculiarities of the cluster approach application for the purposes of strategic planning. Based on the analysis and the peculiarities of the develop-ment of the agro-industrial complex of the region, measures are proposed to increase the efficiency of the developmentof the agro-industrial cluster of the considered region –the Republic of Mari El. Purpose. It is required to determinethe place of the cluster approach in the system of strategic planning for the development of the regional economy. Taking into account the peculiarities of the development of the agro-industrial cluster in the region, it is necessary to determine the measures that, within the framework of the strategic planning system, can ensure an increasein the efficiency of the cluster development. Materials and methods.The authorsused a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the regional development strategy, methods of comparative analysis. Results, discussion.Despite the significant popularity of the cluster approach in science and practice, the current Strategy forsocio-economic development of the Mari El Republic does not use this category in the activities being implemented. This disad-vantage, as well as the peculiarities of the development of the agro-industrial cluster of the region, revealed in other studies, made it possible to form an algorithmic scheme of strategic measures to increase the efficiency of the development of the agro-industrial cluster ofthe region. Conclusion.The measures outlined in this study will have a significant effect on the efficiency of the agro-industrial cluster of the region: the introduction of the cluster approachinto the strategic planning system of the region, state support for the formation of a regional agro-industrial cluster, acceleration of the accumulation of investment potential, the accumulation of intellectual potential. The named and described measures will allow the agro-industrial cluster of the region to provide access to the interregional level of production and cooperation, which in turn will lead to an increase in the development efficiency of the cluster in question.
STATISTICALANALYSISOFTHEMARIEL REPUBLIC SOCIO-ECONOMIC INDICATORS
Authors: Tatyana A. Ignasheva;
Abstract. Introduction.The article covers the issues of statistical construction of the Mari El Republic socio-economic indicators dependencies on a number of factors determiningthem.As the modeledindicators, the minimum subsistence level in the region and the volume of the gross regional product are presented as the most indicative in the study of the socio-economic sphere of the region. The determining factors in the analysis are indicators of money incomes of the population, assigned pensions, index values, indicators of production specia-lization of the region, and the provision of paid services to the population. Purpose:modeling of socio-economic development indicators of the Republic of Mari El. Materials and methods.Statistical analysis is based on the application of the multiple regression method with the construction of models in natural and standardized forms based on Maristat's analytical data. The results of the study make it possible to assess the impact of determining factor signs of socio-economic development on aggregate indicators of the Mari El Republic. Results, discussion.Toobtainmodeling results, a step-by-step method of sequential inclusion was used. When studyingthe matrix of paired correlation coefficients, it was found that there is a close correlation betweenthe average per capita moneyincome and the average size of monthly pensions. Since the average percapita money income is less related to the subsistence minimum, this factor was excluded from further analysis. The cost-of-livingmodel shows a significant impact on itsvalue of average monthly pensions, by 0.94 %, compared with the real moneyincome index, the impact of which is estimated at 0.08 %. The gross regional product model shows a sig-nificant impact on its level ofthevolume of paid services to the population, by 0,98 %, compared to the volume of wood production and processing, the impact of which is estimated at 0,06 %. Conclusion.The article analyzes key indicators of socio-economic development of the Mari El Republic. Models of the subsistence level and gross regional product (GRP)have been built. The average amount of monthly pensions and real moneyincomes of the population have thegreatest impact on the subsistence minimum in the region. In the analysis of GRP volumes, it can be concluded that the wood processing industry, as well as the service sector, have the greatest impact on the development of the Mari El Republic economy.
FINANCIAL MECHANISM FOR ENSURING BUDGETARY STABILITY OF THE CONSTITUENT ENTITIESOF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND DIRECTIONS FOR ITS IMPROVEMENT
Authors: Marina V. Kazakovtseva;
Abstract.Introduction.The study of the theoretical provisions of budgetary stability of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and subfederal entities in other countries witnesses that ensuring a stable financial state of the budget can be achieved through the formation and implementation of a mechanism for ensuring the budgetary stability of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation. The work considers the constituent elements of the mechanism and the directions for its improvement.Theresearch objectiveis to formulate the concept of a financial mechanism to ensure the budgetary stability of a constituent entity of the Russian Federation and its composition and to identify areas for improving the mechanism. Materials and methods.The work considers the research of foreign and Russian scien-tists regarding the structure and content of the financial mechanism. Despite many scientific papers on the subject of the financial mechanism, there is an insufficient elaboration of this issue in the publicfinancial management sector. The financial mechanism for ensuring budgetary sustainability of the constituent entities of the Russian Federa-tion was the financial basis for the development of the constituent entity of the Russian Federation and its effec-tiveness depended on a set of financial techniques, methods and instruments to be applied.Results of a research, discussion.Thestudy of the theoretical foundations of the financial mechanism made it possible to formulate a defini-tion of the mechanism forensuring the budgetary stability of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, develop a scheme and outline the directions for its improvement.Conclusion.Further development of elements of the mecha-nism for ensuring thebudgetary stability of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation will make it possible to streamlinethefinancial management procedures in the budgetary sphere.
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF IMPORT SUBSTITUTION OF FOOD PRODUCTSIN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
UDC: 338: 631
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin;
Abstract. Introduction. The globalization of the world economy is characterized by the expansion of interna-tional trade, which is accompanied by an increase in the export-import dependence of countries with different levels of agricultural development and the potential for ensuring food security. A positive factor is the ability of national markets to develop and sell rawmaterials and food products on world markets, negative phenomena are the interference of geopolitical processes in the existing structure of production and consumption, as well as changes in trade and economic routes between countries and regions, reducing the benefits of international division of labor and agricultural cooperation. Taking into account the high risks in agriculture, the import substitution policy is a nec-essary measure to support domestic enterprises, aimed at the stability of financial and economic indicators and high quality of products sold in the domestic and foreign markets. The potential of Russian regions for the de-velopment of production is significant and is complicated by the low rates of modernization of the industry and severe natural and climatic conditions in many regions of the country.The purposeof the research is to evaluate the production of import-substituting food products in Russia by type to analyze the prospects and problem areas of import substitution. Materials and methods: comparative analysis, dynamic and situational approaches, analysis of statistics on the production of import-substituting food products by type.Results of the research, discussions. Scientific and theoretical approaches to import substitution as a complex economic and strategic task are consid-ered. The foreign experience in the field of protectionist measures related to agricultural production is character-ized. The main problems and restrictions of import substitution in the domestic economy related to the insuffi-ciently effective modernization of the agricultural sector are identified.Conclusion. Achieving food independence of the country's regions is possible on the basis of an effective policy of import substitution of food products, taking into account their economic and physical accessibility for various categories of citizens withhigh quality characteristics for the health and life activity of the population.