VESTNIK 1 (29) 2022

VESTNIK 1 (29) 2022
Date publication on the site:
2022-05-26 09:31:23
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Effect of liquid type on suspension viscosity
UDC: 664.71
Authors: Anna T. Vasyukova; Konstantin V. Krivoshonok; Alexander E. Alekseev; Alexander V. Moshkin; Mounir Talbi;
Introduction. The properties of suspensions are mainly determined by the dispersion, the shape of the particles, and the size of the interface. The most important properties of the suspension are density, viscosity and stability. The purpose of the development is to determine the effect of liquid media to obtain a suspension in the manu-facture of liquid unleavened dough for pancakes. Materials and methods. In the article, various liquid media (water, milk, water : milk − 1: 1) and various types of flour: wheat, rice, buckwheat, amaranth, almond, corn and flax served as the objects of research. The kinematic viscosity of the studied suspension was determined by vis-cometry on a VPZh-2 instrument. This viscosity is ν by the product of τ to the movement through the capillary by constant C. It was found that amaranth flour contains 21.7 g less starch than rice flour, and almond flour is only 8.8 %. Flaxseed flour does not contain starch, but it is rich in dietary fiber and is 10 times superior to sam-ples of flour from grain crops. The properties of the studied suspension depend on the physicochemical parame-ters of the constituent components of the formulation. The main ones are the quality of raw materials (types of flour: wheat, rice, buckwheat, amaranth, almond, corn and linen); as well as the indicators of these products − µ, ρ, pH. It was found that the components of the suspension regulate the dispersion medium: the minimum µ for a suspension of amaranth and rice flour, and the maximum kinematic µ for a suspension based on corn flour. Therefore, when preparing batter, it is desirable to blend corn flour with wheat and rice flour. The introduction of milk into the suspension increases the kinematic viscosity compared to water. The liquid fraction of the sus-pension (water : milk − 1: 1) made it possible to obtain a viscosity that occupies an intermediate position be-tween water and milk. Thus, temperature has an effect on the viscosity of the suspension. With an increase in temperature in the range of 10−20 °C, the suspension density increases. The results of studies on the viscosity of flour suspensions in a certain temperature range allow us to establish their technological characteristics and can be used in practical production activities.
Method for increasing the yield of barley when cultivated by no-till
UDC: 633.16:631.51
Authors: Aleksandr I. Volkov; Lyubov N. Prokhorova; Viktor V. Selyunin;
Introduction. Obtaining consistently high and high-quality grain yields is still one of the most important tasks of modern agriculture. The purpose of the study is to study the possibility of using Agree`s Aminovit liquid organomineral fertilizer to increase the yield of barley when it is cultivated using no-till technology. Materials and methods. The experiments were carried out in 2019−2021 in the agro-climatic conditions of the Chuvash Republic. The object of the study was the mid-season barley variety In Memory of Rodina. The no-till technology included the autumn spraying of the predecessor (spring wheat) field with the Zero continuous herbicide and the spring sowing of barley with the application of mineral fertilizers at a dose of N30P20K20 in the first decade of May. Crop care included treatment with a tank mixture of herbicides (control) with the addition of urea and various doses of liquid organomineral fertilizer. Research results, discussion. On average, the minimum (1.77 t/ha) yield of barley grain was obtained in the control variant, and the maximum (2.33 t/ha) − in the variant with the addition of urea and liquid organomineral fertilizer at a dose of 2.0 l/ha. The use of urea alone contributed to an increase in yield by 0.19 t/ha, and smaller doses of the complex fertilizer Agree`s Ami-novit − an increase of 0.30−0.53 t/ha. Conclusion. The most effective way to increase the yield of barley and the profitability of its cultivation is to treat plants in the early tillering phase with a tank mixture of herbicides Primadonna (0.5 l/ha) and Granat (10 g/ha), urea (10 kg a.i./ha) and liquid organomineral fertilizer Agree`s Aminovit at a dose of 1.5 l/ha.
Polymorphic variants of protein metabolism genes in Holstein cows
UDC: 636.2.034
Authors: Farit F. Zinnatov; Talgat R. Yakupov; Farida F. Zinnatova; Rifat R. Khisamov;
Introduction. Molecular genetics and its achievements make it possible to determine the variations of genes responsible for the economically valuable qualities of the dairy herd. The discovery of genetic diversity will enable dairy farming to take a different approach to the work of livestock breeders. The advantage of the molecular approach lies in the fact that we can identify the DNA profile of an individual at an early age, and this will greatly facilitate the work of breeders. Purpose. In accordance with this, in order to increase the efficiency of breeding work, we set a goal – to conduct a DNA analysis of polymorphic variants of protein metabolism genes in animals, such as: (CSN3) kappa-casein, beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) and prolactin (PRL), as well as to identify the relationship of their polymorphic variants with signs milk productivity. To achieve this goal, DNA samples were taken from a group of 69 cows. Research results. As a result of the studies carried out to identify the relationship of the polymorphism of the kappa-casein gene (CSN3) with milk productivity, the number of animals of the CSN3BB genotype with a significant superiority in the main indicators of milk value among the studied dairy cows (protein and fat) was identified. In a comprehensive study of the genotypes of the CSN3, BLG and PRL genes with milk productivity of cows, 15 different complex genotypes were identified, and the most common of them are combinations of genotypes: PRLAACSN3AABLGAA, PRLAACSN3AABLGAB, PRLAACSN3AABLGBB, and PRLABCSN3AABLGBB. The frequency of their occurrence was as follows: 12 %, 15 %, 16 % and 12 %, respectively. The analysis of the conducted studies revealed that the record milk protein (4.1 %), protein yield (304.9) and fat (349 kg) and at the same time the highest milk yield among the studied livestock (7424.5 kg) belongs to cows with the PRLAACSN3BBBLGAB genotype. It was decided to include newly identified animals-carriers of the desired complex complex genotypes in the breeding core for further obtaining highly productive offspring, which will increase the efficiency of dairy cattle breeding and the level of profitability of milk production.
Express indication of pathogens of viral diarrhea, infectious rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3 in cattle
UDC: 619:591.132.636.2
Authors: Rostislav R. Larton; Azat M. Alimov;
Introduction. In recent years, pathologies of the digestive and respiratory systems have often been recorded among cattle. The leading etiological factors of respiratory diseases are respiratory syncytial virus, viruses of parainfluenza and infectious rhinotracheitis. Respiratory viral infections cause great economic damage to dairy cattle breeding Considering the mixed course of viral respiratory infections, the development of simultaneous amplification of pathogen genomes specific fragments is of particular interest. Purpose. Simultaneous detection of genomes of pathogens of viral diarrhea, infectious rhinotracheitis and parainfluenza-3 by PCR in real time. Materials and methods. In this study, cultures of bovine embryonic kidney cells (BEK), bovine kidney cell line (NDBK) artificially infected with viruses, as well as biomaterial were used. For the detection of the genomes of the VD, IRT, and PI viruses, the most conservative sections of the viral genomes were selected: the genome fragment with the length of 4716−4846 bp in the HV genome for IRT agent, genome fragment with the length of 84−204 bp for VD agent, and genome fragment with the length of 2820−2910 bp for PI agent. To control amplification in Real-time mode (positive control), the design and synthesis of terminal plasmid DNA molecules containing amplifiable DNA sequences was performed. Research results, discussion. Samples from sick animals and pathological material were tested using the multiplex PCR in Real-time mode. The results obtained showed the high specificity and efficiency of the multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the indication and identification of pathogens. Conclusion. The developed set and mode of Real-time polymerase chain reaction allowed us to determine simultaneously 3 different genomes of causative agents of respiratory infections in cattle.
Characteristics of the structure of the broodstock of Ayrshire cattle in the Republic of Mari El
UDC: 636.5.034
Authors: Vitaly A. Namestnikov; Natalia V. Vorobyeva;
Introduction. The article describes the constitutional and productive qualities of the Ayrshire breed of cattle bred in ZAO “Mariiskoe” of the Medvedevsky district of the Republic of Mari El, lists the shortcomings. The purpose of the following work was to determine the breed and class composition of the herd; description of the genealogical structure of the herd and characteristics of cows in terms of milk production; assessment of the reproductive ability of cows of the Ayrshire breed bred in ZAO “Mariiskoe” of the Medvedevsky district of the Republic of Mari El. Materials and methods. The studies were carried out at ZAO “Mariiskoe” − a breeding reproducer for breeding Ayrshire cattle and on the basis of the regional information and breeding center − OOO “Biogenetic Center “Povolzhye”. For the experiment, 121 heads of Ayrshire cattle were selected. The studies were carried out in accordance with The procedure and conditions for the grading of breeding cattle of dairy and dairy-meat areas of productivity (approved by order of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Russian Federation dated October 28, 2010 No. 379). In addition, documents of breeding and zootechnical accounting were used. Research results, discussion. In the course of the study, the following results were obtained. First of all, the breed and class composition of Ayrshire cattle was determined in the period from 2013 to 2020. The genealogical structure of the Ayrshire herd is shown. The main part of the livestock belongs to the line of R.U. Errant AAA 13093 and accounts for 31.4 % of the total number of cattle of the Ayrshire breed, in second place is the line of S.B. Comander 174233, then O.R. Lichting 120135, 13.2 % and 9.09 % respectively. The number of cows of all ages belongs to the same lines and remains in the same places with a percentage of 31.4 %, 13.2 % and 9.09 %, respectively. Heifers of all ages belong to R. U. Errant AAA and Sniperum SRB 63640 lines. The distribution of Ayrshire cows by the number of calvings for 2020 is given. The characteristics of cows of the Ayrshire breed in terms of milk productivity and reproductive ability in dynamics for 7 years are given. Conclusion. Monitoring determined the increase in productivity of Ayrshire cows.
Analysis of the GDF9 gene polymorphism in rams of the Russian Merino meat breed
UDC: 636.3.082.25
Authors: Olga N. Onishchenko;
Introduction. The article presents the results of a study of the polymorphism of the growth differential factor gene (GDF9) in rams of the Russian Merino meat breed in the conditions of the farms of the Lenin stud farm and the Rodina collective farm of the Arzgirsky and Apanasenkovsky districts of the Stavropol Territory. The purpose of this article: determination of the polymorphism of the differential growth factor gene - GDF9, in sires of the Russian meat merino breed using the PCR-RFLP method. Materials and methods. Molecular genetic studies were carried out on the basis of the laboratory of immunogenetics and DNA technologies of VNIIOK, a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution “North Caucasian FSAC”. Today, one of the promising marker genes for sheep fertility is the growth differential factor gene (GDF9). Results. According to the data obtained, the nature of the manifestation of polymorphic variants of the GDF9 gene suggests the possibility of their further use in the organization of studies aimed at identifying the relationship between the level of productivity and the detected genotypes. Modern molecular genetic studies make it possible to improve the accuracy of assessing and predicting the productive qualities of animals. Conclusion. Analysis of PCR diagnostics shows that the GDF9 gene polymorphism is represented by alleles which have different frequencies of occurrence, namely 0.29 and 0.71. Homozygous genotypes are present in the studied group of animals – 28.6 % and 71.4 %, which cannot be said about the heterozygous genotype, which is absent in rams of this sample. The result of the DNA diagnostics of a sample of rams indicates the average degree of homozygosity (Ca) of the GDF9 gene, which was 59.18 % in the locus. The main factors, such as the low number of desirable alleles (Na), the complete absence of heterozygotes in the GDF9 gene loci, the low levels of expected (Hex) and the absence of observed (Hobs) heterozygosity of the GDF9 gene, as well as indicators of genetic variability (V), indicate a change in the genetic balance. The data obtained on the presence of allelic variants of the gene (GDF9) in the considered sample of animals indicate the potential use of the considered gene in marker selection.
Chronic toxicity studies of feed additive “T-1.4”
UDC: 619.615.2/661.155.3
Authors: Eduard I. Semenov ; Marina А. Eerokhondina; Gulnaz S. Zakirova; Igor M. Fitsev;
Introduction. Of significant interest is the support of the poultry body through the use of new generation feed additives that increase productivity and reduce poultry mortality and disease in changing production conditions and the metabolic response of poultry. At the same time, the general toxic properties of new feed additives should be studied. The purpose of the research was to study the chronic toxicity of the feed additive “T-1.4”. Materials and methods. The study of chronic toxicity was carried out on male and female non-linear white rats. The feed additive for laying hens was tested by using it with drinking water in previously established optimal doses (minimum and maximum – 0.02 and 0.05 % solutions and ten times higher than it – 0.2 %. Experimental groups: the first group – 0.2 % solution (18 females and 18 males); the second group – 0.05 % solution (18 females and 18 males); the third group – 0.02 % solution (18 females and 18 males); the fourth group − the control (intact) group (18 females and 18 males).The total duration of observation was 90 days. They were 60 days of daily administration of the feed additive and 30 days of post-observation. Research results, discussion. It was found that the feed additive “T-1.4” in the recommended and tenfold recommended dose does not have a pronounced toxic effect. The use of the feed additive did not have a negative effect on the general condition of the animals, as well as on body weight gain, hematological blood parameters, biochemical parameters of blood serum. Necropsy demonstrated that supplementation at the recommended doses (0.02−0.05 %) did not cause visible changes in internal organs and in organ mass ratios in animals. The additive does not have a local irritating effect at the administration site (gastric mucosa). Conclusion. The new feed additive for laying hens “T-1.4” in the recommended doses does not have a negative effect on laboratory animals and can be further tested on laying hens.
Search for antagonists in relation to sanitary-indicative microbes
UDC: 19.615.372:616.981.51
Authors: Svetlana A. Semеnova; Yulia V. Krasovskaya; Pavel V. Sofronov; Farit M. Nurgaliev;
Introduction. In addition to saprophytic microbes, infectious agents are often detected in the soil. They can contaminate the soil with a variety of organic waste. Sanitary-indicative microbes are able to persist and/or multiply for a rather long period. Screening of microbial isolates − antagonists of sanitary-indicative microbes is promising. Their use would allow accelerating the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms in the soil. The purpose of the research is to search for antagonists in relation to sanitary-indicative microbes. Materials and methods. Isolates of microorganisms isolated from soil samples from various regions of the Republic of Tatarstan served as the material for the study. Antagonism was detected by the “stroke” and “dish” methods by inoculation on dense and liquid special nutrient media. The following microorganisms were used as test strains: L. monocytogenes, Staph. aureus, C. albicans, Salm. typhimurium, E. coli. Research results, discussion. Isolates of micromycetes, actinomycetes and bacteria were isolated and obtained. Of the bacteria (thirty-two isolates in total), antagonism was shown: to Sal. typhimurium − six isolates, to E. coli − four isolates, to L. monocitogenes − five isolates, to C. albicans − two isolates, to St. aureus − twelve isolates. Actinomycetes (ten isolates in total) showed antagonism: to S. typhimurium − two isolates, to St. aureus − seven isolates, to L. monocitogenes − two isolates, to C. albicans − one isolate, to E. coli − eight isolates. Micromycetes (sixty-one isolates in total) showed antagonism against St. aureus − five isolates, E. coli − three isolates. Bacillus isolates had a more pronounced antagonistic effect. Conclusion. Isolate of actinomycete Streptomyces AS31/2, isolates of Bacillus spp. under codes BSB3, BSB4, BSB5 and soil micromycete Trichoderma TR2 were selected as promising for subsequent experiments.
Veterinary and sanitary assessment of the quality and safety of cow’s milk when using the feed additive “Felucenˮ
UDC: УДК 637.5.04
Authors: Sergey Yu. Smolentsev ; Marina S. Gugkaeva; Albina K. Kornaeva; Zarema R. Tsugkieva;
Introduction. Proper feeding of cows is the key to profitable production, as feed takes up to 50 % of the cost of milk. A successful feeding program should solve the following tasks: achieving planned milk productivity, increasing dry matter intake and improving ruminal microbiota. Feed additives, being an integral part of the feeding diet, have an impact on the animal's body, which is expressed, for example, in increasing the average daily weight gain, reducing conversion, improving metabolism, etc. However, it should be noted that feed addi-tives in themselves are not a guarantee of high productivity or profitability of milk production. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of the multicomponent feed additive “Felucen” on the sanitary quality and safety of cow’s milk. The research was carried out on the basis of an educational and experimental farm, where 2 groups of dairy cows of 40 heads each were formed according to the principle of analogues. All cows of both groups received the basic diet adopted by the farm. The first group additionally received “Felucen” feed additive at the rate of 5 g per 1 kg of body. The analysis of milk composition and milk productivity was carried out on the 10th, 30th, 60th and 90th days. The use of “Felucen” provided an increase in dairy productivity of cows by 11% and an increase in milk quality indicators: the mass fraction of fat increased by 0.11 %, protein – by 0.21 %, lactose – by 0.20 %. There was an increase in the number of fat balls by 23 % and the proportion of casein fraction by 11 %. The volume of milk belonging to the I Class in rennet-fermentation test and thermal stability increased by 16 % and 19 %, respectively. Thus, the use of feed additives does not have a negative impact on milk quality indicators.
Treatment of gastrointestinal diseases of calves with natural medicines
UDC: 619:616.61:616.155.194
Authors: Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Olga A. Gracheva; Dina M. Mukhutdinova; Alfiya R. Shageeva ;
Introduction. Diseases of newborn calves with dyspepsia and other disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are currently widespread. This is especially the case in farms where the feeding regime of animals, the nutritional composition of the diet, the veterinary and sanitary conditions of the farm are violated, and mastitis is also found in mother cows. According to A. Oleinik's research, the death of one calf in the first days of life causes damage to the farm in the amount of 2.5 to 5 thousand rubles (from lost profits), in adulthood – from 30 to 90 thousand rubles. In a breeding farm, the cost of a calf at birth is about 4 thousand rubles. Many scientists back in the 50s used tissue preparations and lysates, which were obtained from mammalian organs and tissues by hydrolysis. The purpose of these studies was the approbation of blood preparations, as well as a nucleoprotein, based on yeast against the background of antibacterial agents in sick newborn calves. For this purpose, 40 newborn calves with digestive disorders were selected. Animals, which were both in the control and experimental groups, took antibacterial drugs, including: sulfonamides, antibiotics, as well as a complex of vitamins. The preparation of the yeast nucleoprotein extract was carried out in accordance with the methodology developed by G. A. Lonshakov. The blood serum was obtained by centrifugation of blood taken from mother cows. During the treatment, the analysis of changes in clinical signs and the safety of calves was carried out. It has been established that yeast nucleoprotein extract against the background of antibacterial agents and in combination with immunoglobulins has a pronounced therapeutic and preventive property in acute gastrointestinal diseases of calves, which is associated with the presence of biologically active substances involved in metabolic and oxidative-regenerative processes. Thus, for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases of calves, we recommend using a nucleoprotein every 5−6 days for a month.
Infestation of spring barley seeds with black germ in the conditions of the Republic of Mari El
UDC: 632.4:632.93:633.16
Authors: Hoang Tuan An; Olga G. Maryina-Chermnykh;
Introduction. Grain crop barley is one of the most important food crops in Russia and in the world. Barley is an important raw material for many branches of agriculture. At the same time, malting barley grain is a valuable raw material for the food industry. Spring barley, like all grain crops, is affected by many diseases, including root rot, where the grain in the ear, during formation becomes puny and affected by a black germ. The affected grain reduces its quality and cost, therefore, monitoring of barley seeds for black germ pathogens, as well as the use of preventive measures for the development of the disease, plays an important role in the cultivation of grain crops. The purpose of the study is to determine the spread and development of black germ disease on barley grain, affecting seed germination, to identify the effects of protectants on the black germ disease on barley seeds. Materials and methods. The research was carried out by field and laboratory methods at the Mari State University, the objects of research: spring barley variety Vladimir, fungicide Maxim plus, biologics Bioagro-Gum-B and Pseudobacterin-2. Research results, discussion. Studies have shown that the source of the black germ disease on barley grain is the species of pathogenic fungi B. sorokiniana (20 %) and Alterlaria spp. (4.9 %). Seed germination in the years of research averaged 83 % with a black germ lesion of 19.7 %. Seed treatment with protectants (Maxim plus, Bioagro-Gum-B, Pseudobacterin-2) reduced the infestation of seeds with a black germ by 1.3−1.5 times, increasing the germination rate of seeds to 87−88.8 %. Conclusion. In the Republic of Mari El, barley seeds infected with B. sorokiniana (Shoem) and Alterlaria spp. fungi cause the black germ disease. When seeds are populated with pathogenic microflora, the germination rate decreases. Seed treatment with protectants increases the germination of seeds, reducing the infectious background of the black germ disease.
The impact of the introduction of innovative projects on the level of economic development of the enterprise
UDC: 338.2
Authors: Maxim A. Gribin;
Introduction. The innovation projects implemented at the enterprise have the greatest impact on the number of goods and services that have not previously served as a source of income. Innovation projects often focus not only on the development of new products and services, but also on the improvement of previously manufactured products by improving existing technological processes and introducing innovative management methods, which has a positive impact on economic growth. Purpose: to study the impact of the introduction of innovative projects on the level of economic development of enterprises. Materials and methods. In the course of the study, an analytical and statistical-economic research methods were applied. The information base of the study was data from open statistical sources. Results, discussion. During the study, it was concluded that the in-troduction of innovative processes and technologies into production has a huge impact on its economic efficien-cy.The main effect of the introduction of innovations is due to increased productivity and technological break-throughs in various industries. Stable and long-term development of the enterprise becomes possible only through innovation, which is decisive in the competition. Conclusion. The development of a modern enterprise and increasing the competitiveness of manufactured products is impossible without the introduction of innova-tive projects. Enterprises that neglect this rule are forced to constantly catch up with their more successful com-petitors, which means they are not able to cover the entire market and are content with only a small part of it. Without the introduction of innovative projects, an enterprise is not able to influence production costs, improve the quality of previously manufactured products and develop new products and services.
On the issue of the evolution of the entrepreneurial university: an institutional approach
UDC: 330
Authors: Anna N. Tarasova;
Introduction. The processes of globalization and internationalization have made their own adjustments and changed the role of the main actors of social and economic transformations. The world’s universities have been influenced by various factors, such as: regional economic and social development, reduction of public spending on education and increased competition in the market of educational services. As a result, modern universities are increasingly forced to turn to entrepreneurship as their main activity, commercialize research results and create knowledge-based enterprises and startups. The purpose of this work is to review the literature on the factors influencing the creation and development of entrepreneurial universities. The research is based on institutional economic theory and, in particular, North's work, which describes formal and informal factors that contribute to or slow down the processes of formation and development of an entrepreneurial university. The four theoretical approaches and the main models of the development of entrepreneurial universities identified by Clark, Itskowitz, and Kirby are analyzed from the point of view of institutional economic theory based on integrated formal and informal factors. Conclusion. Based on the definitions pro-posed by researchers Clark, Kirby and Itzkowitz, an entrepreneurial university can be called a university that provides support structures for teachers and students who are able to create innovative enterprises: intellectual, commercial and collaborative. The obtained results of scientific research can be used to build a policy that stimulates entrepreneurial activity of universities, thereby contributing to the development of smart (intellectual) economy.