VESTNIK 4 (20) 2019
- VESTNIK 4 (20) 2019
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- 2020-01-20 08:45:33
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THE BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF DIETARY MEAT AND VEGETABLE CULINARY PRODUCTS
Authors: Anna T. Vasyukova; Rostislav A. Edvars; Anatoliy S. Kushnarenko; Maksim V. Vasyukov; Eradzh Sh. Makhmadaliev; Sergei I. Okhotnikov;
The article is dedicated to the creation of a new generation of meat and vegetable products with functional characteristics. The dependences of amino acid composition of culinary products on the components of the recipe are shown. Patterns that affect CRAS and BV have been established. The aim of the research is the effect of the components of the formulation and the method of thermal treatment on the amino acid composition of meat and vegetable culinary products. The objectives of the study are to prepare meat and vegetable raw materials for the technological process, to compile control and experimental samples of model minced meat on the basis of the proposed raw materials, to develop a technological process of manufacturing dietary products in steamconvectomat, to determine the nutritional and biological value of the samples obtained. The objects of the research are minced meat and vegetable and dietary culinary products based on them. A new combination of meat components in the recipe of model minced meat is proposed: beef and lamb, mutually complementing each other’s technological properties – plasticity and elasticity. The introduction of vegetable components: carrots, pumpkins and white cabbage in recipes is justified. Methods of research are organoleptic, physical and chemical: MVI-02-2002, MI 103.5-105.2011, GOST 2341-2015; GOST 25011-2017. Determination of amino acid composition was carried out according to the existing methodology of the All-Russian Research Institute of Meat Products. The calculation of the biological value of the developed product samples was carried out using the innovative methodology of the Institute. The results of the study and discussion. New taste qualities of steam meatballs have been developed, both with the addition of vegetables, such as cabbage, carrots and pumpkin, and without the addition of vegetables. All test samples were prepared in a steam-convectomat in the “steam” mode. The mass share of moisture in steam meatballs with beef, lamb and cabbage is 12 % more than in steam meatballs with beef and pumpkin and 10 % more than in steam meatballs with beef and carrots. The mass share of fat in steam meatballs with beef and pumpkin is 15 % more than in steam meatballs with beef, lamb and cabbage and 4 % more than in steam meatballs with beef and carrots; the mass share of carbohydrates, ash and protein in the three compared samples has insignificant differences. Conclusions. Steam meatballs with beef and lamb have the most adjusted amino acid composition.
INSTALLATION FOR THE CONTINUOUS PRODUCTION OF SILVER WATER TO INCREASE THE VIABILITY OF BEE COLONIES IN APIARIES
Authors: Boris F. Lavrentiev; Maksim S. Koval;
The use of silver water in apiaries in order to increase the viability of bee colonies can significantly increase their profitability. The concentration of silver ions in water should be: for drinking bees – 0,5–1,2 μg/l, for making syrup –3,5–10 μg/l, for washing hives and disinfection – 18–60 μg/l and for the treatment of bees – 60–80 mcg/l. The second feature of such devices is their work in the field, which requires high reliability of the device, good performance, ease of use and protection against moisture and mechanical stress from the external environment, as well as ease of carrying and transportation. The article describes the device for producing silver water “Erviy 3”, developed by employees of the Volga State Technological University for use in apiaries. The main disadvantage of all existing devices for producing silver water is that silver water is formed in a given volume and can be obtained periodically in limited quantities, and then diluted with water to the desired concentration. This leads to difficulties in obtaining and using silver water in large agricultural and industrial enterprises and in medical institutions. The main goal of this work is to create a facility for the continuous production of silver water with high accuracy of a given concentration of silver ions for large agricultural, medical and industrial institutions. In the proposed installation, in order to reduce errors in the concentration of water by silver ions, a new methodology of the ionization process by the amount of electricity during the ionization of water is used. The article presents a block diagram of the installation for the continuous production of silver water with high accuracy by a given concentration of silver ions and its operation is described. The installation is characterized by ease of operation, high technical parameters, low cost and can be recommended for use in apiaries in various regions of the country.
EFFECT OF FEED ADDITIVES ON LIVE WEIGHT GAIN OF BROILER CHICKENS
Authors: Ellada K. Papunidi; Leysan V. Abdullina; Albina V. Potapova; Svetlana N. Savdur; Sergey Yu. Smolentsev;
One of the main branches of animal husbandry is poultry farming, which has moved to an intensified path of development. The decision of the State programme for the development of agriculture and regulation of markets of agricultural products, raw materials and food provides for an increase in agricultural production, including the maximum solution to the problem of providing the population with meat. Ways of agricultural development in the context of globalization of the country’s market economy are aimed at providing the population with highquality and safe food, thus expenses are minimal. Large-scale chemization of various industries, irrational use of drugs lead to a milfuction of the microbial regime of the digestive tract of poultry. Disturbed acid-base balance in the body of poultry leads to a decrease in its productivity and quality of poultry products. Preservation of high poultry productivity directly depends on the effect on the adaptive and protective properties of its organism, through the use of additives of various origins. A lot of products for ensuring balance in an organism of a bird have appeared in the market of additives. Among them, the most effective are additives based on plant raw materials and succinic acid. The use of such additives can effectively increase the productivity of poultry when using traditional feed in combination with them. Succinic acid, calcium succinic acid, calcium fumaric acid, biologically active feed additives “Extrafit” and “Vita-Force” were used as test preparations. The result of adding biologically active additives to the diet of birds of the experimental groups contributed to an increase in their meat productivity by an average of 7.3–21.1 %. The effectiveness of different drugs at different age periods was not taken into account, the content of feed additives in the diets of broiler chickens did not have a negative effect on the general condition and well-being, positively influenced the intensity of their growth.
INFLUENCE OF WEATHER AND CLIMATE CONDITIONS ON THE QUALITY OF SPRING WHEAT GRAIN USED IN VACUUM DRYING TECHNOLOGY
UDC: 633.11 «321»:631.4
Authors: Galina I. Pashkova; Natalia O. Burova;
Weather conditions of the Mari El Republic do not always allow obtaining spring wheat grain with high technological properties. In this regard, one of the directions of using grain with low technological properties is the use of germinated grain by vacuum drying in bakery. For this technology, it is important that the microbiological indicators do not exceed the values allowed by the standards, since germination leads to the appearance of various molds on the surface of the germinated grain, and therefore leads to spoilage of the finished product. In this case the weather conditions in which the grain for germination was obtained are very important. Purpose. To study the influence of weather conditions on the quality of spring wheat used in vacuum drying technology of germinated grain. Materials and methods. The influence of weather conditions on the quality of spring wheat used in the technology for obtaining dry germinated grains of vacuum drying was carried out at the Experimental Field of the Mari State University in 2016, 2017. Spring wheat cultivation technology was generally accepted for the zone. The predecessor was is winter rye, the wheat variety used was is Lada. Germination determination was carried out according to GOST 12083–84 “Seeds of agricultural crops. Germination determination methods”. Infection with phytopathogens was determined according to GOST 12044–93 “Seeds of agricultural crops. Methods for determining disease infection”. Results, discussion. Comparative studies of grain samples in 2016 and 2017 were carried out, germination and infection of seeds with pathogens were determined. If the germination rate did not differ significantly over the years, then the infection with various types of pathogens in 2017 compared to 2016 increased by 1.5–5 times. This significantly influenced the quality of the germinated grain and made it impossibile to use it in the technology of dry germinated grain of vacuum drying. Conclusion. The weather conditions in which wheat is grown significantly affect the quality of the grain and its contamination with pathogenic organisms. High humidity causes a significant increase in pathogenic microflora and the impossibility of further use of germinated grains in vacuum drying technology.
EFFECT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ADDITIVES ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND CALORIC CONTENT OF POULTRY MEAT
Authors: Sergey Yu. Smolentsev; Gulia A. Khamatgaleeva; Alsu N. Gainetdinova; Alina R. Nurgalieva; Gulnur G. , , , ORCID ID: 0000-0002-4948-25 Sergeenko;
Intensification of meat poultry farming is gaining momentum and is developing in accordance with world practice, based on the introduction and development of innovations, which contributes to the competitiveness of broiler production. The genetic potential of modern crosses of meat chickens allows to obtain high average daily gains, while labor and feed costs are minimal. The use of premixes is aimed at balancing the rations for missing elements of nutrition, improving the digestibility of basic feeds, increasing the digestibility and use of nutrients in rations, improving the quality of products. Purposeful change of metabolism and prevention of stress conditions of animals is achieved due to normalization of metabolic processes on the background of the use of biologically active additives. Succinic acid, calcium succinic acid, calcium fumaric acid, biologically active feed additives “Extrafit” and “Vita-Force” were used as additives. At the end of the experiment, 5 birds from each group were subjected to slaughter, then complex studies were conducted on the veterinary and sanitary examination of poultry meat. Studies included the determination of the chemical composition and caloric content of meat. From the results of the study, it follows that the meat of broiler carcasses of all groups receiving the tested drugs does not differ in chemical composition from the meat of control birds. The obtained data allow us to conclude that the additional introduction of the studied drugs into the diet of broiler chickens during the entire growing period does not have a negative impact on the indicators of slaughter products analyzed to confirm good quality. There was also a slight increase in the biological value and caloric content of poultry meat. Therefore, it is obvious that the use of these biologically active additives causes stimulation of intensive growth, development of muscle tissue of broiler chickens, intensification of live weight gain. Developing and applying environmentally safe methods aimed at stimulating the growth and development of young birds, the reproductive ability of adult birds, as well as increasing their nonspecific resistance and immunobiological reactivity, allows to ensure the production of high-quality and cost-effective poultry products.
INFLUENCE OF D SYSTEM BLOOD GROUPS ON MILK PRODUCTIVITY OF RUSSIAN HEAVY DRAFT HORSES AT THE BREEDING KOUMISS COMPLEX OF CJSC BF “SEMENOVSKY”
Authors: Artyom I. Strelnikov; Andrey V. Onegov;
One of the ways to increase the profitability of dairy horse breeding is to improve the milk production of mares through breeding. The main characteristics for selecting mares to dairy herd are indicators of their own productivity: lactation duration, productivity for 210 days of lactation and milk composition (mass fraction of fat and protein). An important indicator is the type of constitution of an animal, it must correspond to the milk direction. However, the first lactation in mares is completed only by the age of five years. This leads to the use of little productive animals that do not cover the costs of their rearing. Purpose. In connection with the above, it is economically more profitable to cull mares with low productivity from the herd by early prediction of their potential. Materials and methods. Studies were conducted on mares of Russian Heavy Draft breed. The venue of the experiment was CJSC Breeding Factory “Semenovsky” and the laboratory for clinical diagnostics and biochemical research of the Department of Livestock Production Technology at the Mari State University. The method is based on the dependence of milk production of mares on blood groups of D system. With the help of methodological recommendations of R. M. Dubrovskaya and I. M. Starodumov blood groups were determined. Red blood cell antigens of systems A and D of blood groups were typed by monospecific sera. Milk production of mares was studied using control milking. Daily milk productivity was determined by I. A. Saigin’s formula. Results, discussion. The conducted studies show that there is a relationship between milk production and genotypes of D system blood groups in mares of Russian Heavy Draft breed. The genotypes of D system blood groups, which decrease and increase the milk productivity of mares, were revealed. Conclusion. This fact allows us to recommend the use of genotypes of D system blood groups as a sign of selection of mares to the milking herd of koumiss complexes in the early stages of growth and development of mares.
NEW WINTER WHEAT VARIETY ITALMAS
Authors: Irina V. Torbina;
Winter wheat is a culture of great biological yield potential, but in the Volga-Vyatka region the share of winter wheat in the structure of the sown areas of the republics and regions is insignificant. An increase in the distribution of winter wheat in the Volga-Vyatka region is possible due to the creation of adapted varieties adapted to local environmental factors. Purpose: to create a new winter wheat variety, winter-hardy, productive, resistant to the most common diseases in the Volga-Vyatka region. Materials and methods: field studies were conducted according to the guidelines of VIR and State crop variety testing. The main method of selection work with winter wheat in the Udmurt Research Institute of Agriculture is intraspecific hybridization with the subsequent individual selection of plants. Research result. The article presents the results of breeding work (2001–2011) on the creation of winter-hardy, productive variety of winter wheat Italmas, resistant to the most common diseases in the Volga-Vyatka region. The Italmas variety was created using the intraspecific hybridization of the Zarya and Rappoport varieties, followed by individual selection from the hybrid generation F2. According to the study results at the Udmurt Agricultural Research Institute in competitive variety testing (2009–2011), the variety showed an advantage in the main economic and valuable characteristics over the standard Kazanskaya 285 and was distinguished by increased winter hardiness (71 %) and yield (3.47 t/ha), weak incidence of snow mold (19 %), sclerotinia (11 %) and brown rust (5 %). An assessment of the quality of Italmas winter wheat grain showed that in terms of indicators, the mass fraction of protein (12.63 %), gluten content (28.6 %), quality of gluten (83 FDM units), falling-number (371 seconds), vitreousness (64 %), natural weight (757 g/l), grain corresponded to the third quality class (GOST 9353–2016). The overall assessment of the quality of bread is satisfactory (3.57 points). Baking qualities are at the level of good filler, grain is suitable for baking. In 2011 the Italmas variety was transferred to state variety testing, since 2017 it has been included in the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation, approved for use in the Volga-Vyatka (4) region, recommended for cultivation in the Sverdlovsk region. The Italmas variety is semiintensive; it has shown stress resistance and stability in the conditions of the Sarapulsky and Mozhginsky variety test plots of the Udmurt Republic on light-gray forest medium-loamy and heavy-loamy soils. The optimal sowing time for the variety in the conditions of the Udmurt Republic was from August 23 to 30. Autumn pre-seeding introduction of azophoska (N45P45K45) had a positive effect on winter hardiness and yield of winter wheat.
APPLICATION OF BIOLOGICAL PREPARATIONS IN THE CULTIVATION OF SPRING WHEAT
Authors: Asia M. Yamalieva; Nina N. Apaeva;
Lesions by root rot are annually noted on the crops of spring wheat in the conditions of the Republic of Mari El. A special place in the technology of cultivation of any agricultural crop, in particular cereal crops should be given to the problem of optimizing the phytosanitary state of the soil and crops. In our republic, the soil used for the cultivation of spring wheat is mainly sod-podzolic and has a small variety of microbiocenosis. Such types of pests that previously did not cause noticeable harm to cultivated plants are often observed in agrobiocenosis. Chemicals significantly reduce plant damage by diseases, but do not improve the phytosanitary condition of the soil. Therefore, a special place in an integrated defense system is given to biological preparations in an integrated defense system. In recent years, interest in the use of microbiological preparations has increased. The aim of our research is to study the effectiveness of biological preparations Orgamika F and Trichodermin in the cultivation of spring wheat. Materials and methods. Seeds were pickled before sowing according to the instructions. The counts and analyzes were carried out according to generally accepted methods. The results of the study and discussion. The treatment of seeds with biological preparations contributed to the reduction of root rot of spring wheat. The biological effectiveness of the biological product Orgamika F was at the level of the chemical drug Sertikor (94.3–100 %). The biological preparation Trichodermin helped to reduce the spread and development of root rot of spring wheat. Its biological effectiveness was 80–90 %. Trichoderma fungi contained in the biological preparations of Orgamika F and Trichodermin have a positive effect on the micromycetic composition of the soil. They contributed to the activation of saprotrophic fungi and reduced the number of pathogens. The highest yield of spring wheat was obtained from the use of Orgamika F. The yield increase was 1.08 t/ha. Conclusions. Application of the biological preparation increases the profitability of spring wheat grain production.
A PERSONIFIED MODEL OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF TEACHERS OF SECONDARY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
Authors: Denis V. Bochkov; Olga A. Lukyanenko;
The article reveals the topical issues caused by the requirements to the professionalism of the employees of the system of secondary vocational education (SVE), in particular, the team of authors analyzes the problem of compliance of the personnel resource of the institution of SVE with the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard of SVE TOP-50, justifies the necessity of building in the institutions of SVE personalized models of professional training of teachers and masters of vocational training and the system of internal control of its implementation. Based on the study of periodicals and monographic studies on the stated issues, the authors clarify the content of the concepts of personalized teacher training, a personalized teacher development model, as well as an assessment of the degree of scientific knowledge of the studied problem in the system of SVE. The article presents the regional experience on the basis of SAPEO “OSC” on the construction and implementation of a personalized model of professional training of employees of SVE, clarified the mechanism of personification of financial resources for personnel. Within the framework of the model, the basic principles of its construction, the stated goal and objectives for its implementation are analyzed, the structure and distinctive features of the model from identical models of other institutions of secondary vocational education and regions are described. In addition, a mechanism of implementation of the model within the three-axis measurement (knowledge, attitude to the process, the ability to act) is presented. It allows to assess the level of assigned competencies by different teachers and masters of vocational training on the basis of the scale of differentiation of the set of competencies of personnel by the specific weight of each competence assigned by the subject. The first results of the experimental work on implementation of the personalized model on the basis of the competence approach in SAPEO “OSC”. At the end of the article, recommendations are given at the level of management of the College to ensure the achievement of systematic, sustainable results and greater efficiency in the implementation of the declared model.
ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORS OF COMPETITIVENESS FORMATION OF A COMMERCIAL BANK
Authors: Roman Yu. Emadakov;
The study of the issues of formation and ensuring the competitiveness of the enterprise (organization) and products, without exaggeration, is a constantly relevant topic of scientific research. Time and being changing in it always bring something new both to the content and understanding of these studied objects, as well as to their various applied aspects. New types of products (works, services) appear; consumer preferences, patterns of consumer behavior and perception, strategies and tactics of competition, sources of competitive advantages, factors and “standards” of enterprise competitiveness are changing. Purpose. Analysis and systematization of the factors of competitiveness formation of a commercial bank. Materials and methods. The study is implemented in the framework of the system-dialectical methodology. The main research technique is a monographic analysis, the results of which synthesize author’s assumptions and suggestions. The results of the study. A special area of scientific research is the development (refinement, detailing) of the relevant systems of factors of competitiveness formation for certain types of products and enterprises (organizations) of various industries (types of economic activity). The development of this area of scientific research should naturally include the identification of specific features, which will arise both at the level of the studied objects themselves, and at the level of their environment and, thus, characterize them. This article presents a variant of the practical application of the system of factors of competitiveness formation of an enterprise (organization) by the example of the organization of the banking sector – a commercial bank. Various factors that may affect the formation of the competitiveness of a commercial bank are identified, described and critically analyzed. The structuring of the factors of competitiveness of a commercial bank was carried out. The construction of a logical-functional model characterizing the interdependence between different groups of factors of competitiveness formation of a commercial bank is carried out. Conclusion. The system of factors of competitiveness formation of a commercial bank developed and presented in this publication has the character of a “first approximation” to the study of this subject area and will need appropriate detailing by types of business models of commercial banks.
MODELLING OF INTEGRATED INDICATORS AND FORECAST OF INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION INDEXES IN THE MARI EL REPUBLIC
Authors: Tatyana A. Ignasheva;
In the article the technique of deduction method application when forming of the integrated modular indicators characterizing the extent of industrial production indicators influence of different types of activity of the Mari El Republic on the gross regional product is offered. The research of the time series of industrial production indexes in terms of structure stationarity and creation of a short-term forecast of volumes dynamics of the region industrial sector functioning provides the base at adoption of strategic solutions of rather perspective development of the Republic. Purpose: formation of integrated indicators of the industrial sphere and the forecast of industrial production indexes in the Republic of Mari El. Materials and methods. The statistical analysis of the industrial sector is carried out on the basis of analytical data of the Federal State Statistics Service in the Mari El Republic with application of methods of the factorial analysis and forecasting of the time series allowing to receive the generalized indicators of functioning of the region’s industry in total and to construct the short-term forecast of development dynamics for prospect. Results, discussion. The results of the formation of integrated indicators of the Mari El Republic industry demonstrate that the third factor (coefficient of informational content of the third principal components – 72,58 %), and the first factor (informational content coefficient – 68,12 %) have the greatest impact on the gross regional product volumes. It is provided due to modernization and technical re-equipment of productions, constant increased operating capacity at the enterprises of the types of industrial activity which are part of these factors. The enterprises recieve state support for subsidizing a part of leasing payments and a part of percentage expenses on the loans attracted for implementation of the investment projects aimed at the development of production and creation of new jobs. On the basis of point estimates of the forecast of the Republic industrial production indexes it is possible to draw a conclusion that from May, 2019 to January, 2020 the development trend in general is growing, the increase of industry volumes will reach 5,94 %. However, the presence of seasonality in the activities of industrial enterprises of the region leads to reduction of production activity of the industrial sector within the next 6 months for 7,98 % by June, 2020. In general, for the forthcoming 12 months the volumes of industrial activity in the Mari El Republic will increase by 8,16 % in comparison with the last period of similar extent. Conclusion. The technique of formation of the integrated indicators of the industrial sector development allows us to define the most perspective types of industrial activity providing significant growth of a gross regional product of the Mari El Republic. The offered short-term forecast of change of industrial production indexes gives an opportunity of operational impact on dynamics of the key defining industry indicators when forming strategic development plans for the region.
СONSUMER COOPERATION IN THE MARKET STRUCTURE OF WILD FRUIT AND BERRY CROPS AND WILD MUSHROOMS
Authors: Alsu R. Nabieva;
The relevance and novelty of the topic is argued by the great national importance of using the potential of natural and climatic conditions for the growth of wild fruit crops and forest mushrooms, the place of this product in the national economy of the country, as well as the prospects for the sale of environmentally friendly wild plants on the international market. Russia's natural resources favor the growth of ecologically pure wild-growing crops in large volumes, both in the European part of the country and in the regions of Siberia and the Far East. Significant volumes of wild fruit and berry crops, mushrooms, nuts, medicinal herbs and other products useful for human health can be collected annually in the natural forests and swamps. Not everywhere the collection of these products is organized at the proper level. As a result, a significant amount of wild-growing Russian products does not enter the domestic and foreign market in the food supply system. Insufficient regulatory and legal support of this sphere restrains the development of the domestic market of wild plants. There are few organizational and economic measures that stimulate the collection and processing of wild fruits, berries, mushrooms, nuts and other products. One of the ways to use the existing potential for expanding the market of wild plants is a more active and full use of available resources and forms of cooperative procuring offices, receiving points of consumer societies of the Central Union (Centrosoyuz) of Russia. A more active regulatory and economic support for this activity is proposed, both on the part of state authorities and the expansion of cooperative entrepreneurship in organizing harvesting of wild fruit and berry crops and wild mushrooms from rural residents and temporary labor collectives collecting wild plants.
DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF RURAL AREAS ON THE BASIS OF DIVERSIFICATION OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE REGIONS OF RUSSIA
Authors: Matvey S. Oborin;
Introduction. Rural areas represent a significant strategic potential for the country’s sustainable growth, in the context of deteriorating environmental conditions in the industrialized regions a balanced state policy aimed at overcoming the difficult socio-economic situation is needed. The experience of developed countries shows the need for non-agricultural specialization based on the optimization of the use of economic potential, which not only contributes to sustainability in the conditions of external economic shocks, but also affects the quality of life of the population by creating new jobs and business infrastructure. The regulatory and legal documents, which are implemented in the field of integrated support for rural areas, are aimed at diversification, development of material and production base and infrastructure, while the goal of the legislator is also to strengthen the main specialization through the modernization of production equipment and the formation of transport and logistics relationships. Objective: to identify promising areas of diversification of the economy of territories with agricultural specialization on the example of Russian regions that will positively affect the use and development of their economic potential. Materials and methods. Analysis of statistics, system and situational approaches to the assessment of industry indicators in the subjects of the Russian Federation, socio-economic modeling. Results of research, discussion. The article presents a scientific and theoretical analysis of the basic concepts on the research problem, identified the key problems of socio-economic development of territories with agricultural specialization. The domestic experience of diversification of the economy of rural areas on the basis of infrastructure development is consedered. As a result, a model was proposed for diversifying the economy of territories with agricultural specialization, which can be adapted in the regions of Russia. Conclusion. Territories with agricultural specialization should be developed taking into account the needs of the population and the business environment, the main and most promising direction of economic diversification is engineering and transport infrastructure.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF THE AVERAGE MONTHLY WAGES OF EMPLOYEES OF THE EDUCATION SECTOR OF THE MARI EL REPUBLIC
Authors: Tatiana V. Sarycheva;
Introduction. The article describes statistical approaches to the analysis of the dynamics of the average wages of employees of educational organizations in the main categories, implemented on the example of the Mari El Republic according to data for 2013–2018, which allowed us to assess the trends and speed of processes in the field of education at the regional level. Purpose: to propose and implement methodological approaches to the analysis of dynamic processes occurring in the field of remuneration of educators. Materials and methods. The information base for the study was the published statistical data of the Territorial Authority of State Statistics for the Republic of Mari El. As a research toolkit, we used algorithms for index methods of statistical analysis, methods of cluster and regression analysis, and graphical representation of data. Results of the research, discussion. The trends occurring in the remuneration of workers employed in the education sector of the Mari El Republic were identified and assessed for the main categories of workers, using average absolute and relative dynamics indicators, the characteristics of the development of wage indicators were analyzed, and linear trend models were obtained based on the series of dynamics, which allow to determine the average quarterly increment in the amount of wages of employees of enterprises and organizations involved in the education of the population. Conclusion. The analysis of the results showed that despite the outstripping growth rate of the average wages in the field of education relative to the average wages in the economy of the region as a whole, the wages of the main categories of employees of educational organizations is still significantly lower than the average for the economy of the region as a whole.
REVIEW TO THE MONOGRAPH OF V. V. ALEKSEEV, I. I. MAKSIMOV: “HYDROPHYSICS OF SOILS IN SOIL AMELIORATION”. CHEBOKSARY: A NEW TIME, 2017, 280 P., 500 COPIES
Authors: B. M. Kizyaev; L. V. Kireicheva;
Эффективность и результативность мелиора- тивных мероприятий существенным образом за- висят от степени постижения фундаментальных научных основ, лежащих в основе непосред- ственных практических расчетов. Для мелиора- ции такой основой во многом является гидрофи- зика. Однако к настоящему времени не создано общепринятой и непротиворечивой физически обоснованной теории удержания воды почвой. Подробное описание развития отечественной шко- лы энергетики почвенной влаги и почвенно- гидрофизического моделирования дано в моногра- фиях А. М. Глобуса и Б. Н. Мичурина. Основной вклад в развитие данного направления за рубежом внесли работы Муалема, Ван Генухтена, Хавер- кампа, Косуги, Шимунека и другие. Значимость развития энергетики почвенной влаги определя- ется тем, что здесь формируются представления о фундаментальных закономерностях межфазных абиотических взаимодействий в почве, которые и должны быть положены в основу математиче- ского моделирования динамики почвенной вла- ги. И только в этом случае можно ожидать адек- ватного описания таких сложных процессов, как перенос воды и питательных веществ по почвен- ному профилю. Монография докторов техниче- ских наук, доцента В. В. Алексеева и профессора И. И. Максимова в данном контексте является тем научным трудом, который достаточно полно раскрывает связи между гидрофизическими свой- ствами почв, режимами орошения и динамикой контуров увлажнения почвы. Структура работы построена логично и подчинена достижению поставленной цели. Она включает шесть глав. Содержание подробно иллюстрировано графи- ческим материалом. На основе системно-диалек- тического подхода в рецензируемой монографии раскрыты гидрофизические основы расчета в та- ких мелиоративных мероприятиях, как капельное орошение и дождевание. Разносторонне рассмот- рено влияние культуртехнических мелиораций на изменение водных свойств почв. Достаточно аргументированно намечены направления совер- шенствования получения основной гидрофизи- ческой характеристики и функции влагопровод- ности почв. Резюмируя, следует заключить, что научная монография «Гидрофизика почв в мелиорации» является той работой, в которой разработаны тео- ретические положения в области физики почв, со- вокупность которых можно квалифицировать как новое научное достижение, и на основе этих поло- жений предложено решение ряда научных про- блем, имеющих важное хозяйственное значение.