VESTNIK 1(5) 2016
- VESTNIK 1(5) 2016
- Date publication on the site:
- 2016-04-27 13:07:00
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INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY OF REARING CHICKENS RAISING
UDC: УДК 636.52./.58
Authors: Yury Aleksandrovich Alexandrov ;
It was established that in the age up to 48 days (before transplantation), in the redistribution of the studied population live weight of hens, roosters varied over a wide range. The coefficient of variation of sample ranged from 10–17 % in the control group, 10–16 % in the experimental group. Chickens of the experimental group and the control group grew and developed most intensively at the age of 63–84 days (9–12 weeks). However, in the experimental group, they were superior to their peers on live weight at 2,5–5,0 %. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0,05). In the period of 98–140 days of age (14–20 weeks), live weight of rearing broiler chickens of the experimental group was superior to peers, to a lesser extent – on 3,1–1,7 %, although the difference is also statistically significant up to 119 days of age (P < 0,05). It should be noted that in the period of 56–140 days of age (8–20 weeks) chicken of both experimental and control groups were more homogenous compared to the age period of 7–49 days. Coefficients of variation for body weight ranged between 4–10 %, that corresponds to the target standards of rearing broiler chickens of the cross “Ross-308”. The roosters of the experimental group compared with the roosters of the control group also grew and developed more intensively. The difference in body weight in the age periods of 9, 11, 12 weeks was statistically significant (P < 0,05). This difference persisted in other age periods, but within the study flocks, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0,05). Direct cultivation technology of rearing chickens raising has a beneficial effect on growth and development due to the elimination of technological stresses associated with a change in the age of 42 days. It is a factor in the creation of homogeneous flocks meeting the requirements of the target standard of the cross “Ross-308”.
OPTIMIZATION SUPPLY OF NUTRIENTS TO THE SOD-PODZOLIC SOIL UNDER CROPS OF SPRING BARLEY
UDC: УДК 631.811:633.16
Authors: Margarita Aleksandrovna Evdokimova ;
The aim of the study is to optimize the nutrient regime of sod-podzolic soils, which allows us to get 3 tons of grain of spring barley per hectare. To achieve this goal it was necessary to solve following tasks: to identify the influence of predecessors and fertilizers on the nutritive regime of the soil, the yield of spring barley and to determine the profitability of fertilizers in the production of barley grain. Research was conducted by the method of two-field experience and laboratory testing according to generally accepted and recommended methods for the zone. The experimental setup: A factor – precursor of barley (1 – winter triticale, 2 – potatoes); Factor B – doses of mineral fertilizers (1 – without fertilizer, 2 – N60P60, 3 – N60K60, 4 – P60K60, 5 – N60P60K60). According to the system of fertilizers in crop rotation in the cultivation of winter triticale presowing cultivation was added to the programmable N65P70K60 yield 3 t/ha, and for potatoes – 40 tons of manure for plowing and presowing cultivation N85P50K50 on soft yield of 30 t/ha. Regardless predecessor the maximum content of nitrate in soil was observed at the tillering stage and then decreased sharply, the interests of plants of spring barley nitrogen nutrition was when placed in the rotation after potatoes. During sprouting barley plants were better ensured the availability of phosphorus and exchange potassium nutrition when placing barley after potatoes. Due to the use of nutrients by plants to the phase of ripening of the grain, their content in the soil decreased. The use of mineral fertilizers for sowing cultivation contributed to the improvement of the nutrient status of the soil and availability of nutrients of plants. Finally it can be summed up by saying that by adjusting the precursor and certain combinations of fertilizers can significantly to improve the nutrient regime of sod-podzolic soil, improve the efficiency of fertilizers and increase crop production. For spring barley yield 3 t/ha at cultivation on sod-podzolic soil with a high content of phosphorus and potassium was placed after the crop of potatoes and used under N60P60K60 sowing cultivation.
INFLUENCE OF CROP ROTATION ON AVERAGE ANNUAL ADMISSION OF VEGETABLE BALANCE FOR ONE CROP ROTATION
UDC: УДК 631.423.4
Authors: Sergey Anatolyevich Zamyatin ; Vladimir Mihajlovich Izmestiev ;
The paper presents the research results from the accumulation of plant residues in in crop rotations per rotation on average for 2010–2015. The consideration of mass left by the roots of plant residues showed that in crop rotations with high saturation of crops and potatoes, the soil receives the least amount of organic matter and hence nutrients. Grain (control) with a one-year crop rotation using clover gives in an average year 3,79 t/ha of correponding residues. I-st crop rotation, due to the replacement of the clover in the potato, has formed 11 % less root-residue than the control rotation. In the II-nd crop rotation and grain-grass-tilled crop rotation accumulation of residues were in the 9–21 % higher than in the controls. This is primarily due, the best development of the roots after manure application and use within two years of sowing clover, which provided the best phytosanitary condition of crops (less root rot damage and contamination) and therefore a higher growth of plants and increase their yields. Mineral fertilizers contribute to a slight increase in biomass correponding residues of crops. The inclusion in the crop rotation of clover had a positive effect on the accumulation of correponding residues in the whole crop rotation. If the content correponding clover residues during the study period is taken as 100 %, then after winter is 84 % correponding residues. The least amount of residues leaves the potatoes. According to our observations, spring cereals leave behind about the same amount of crop residues, but spring wheat and oats in greater numbers, and barley and annual grasses – in the lower.
INFLUENCE OF CROP ROTATION ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF ROOT ROT CROPS
UDC: УДК 616.581.2 632
Authors: Sergey Anatolyevich Zamyatin ; Asiya Mantsurovna Yamaliyeva ;
This work is a long-term (1998–2015) study of root rot in the six-field crop rotations of various types, with varying degrees of saturation of crops. It is shown that saturation of crop rotation by crops leads to the accumulation of infection in the soil increases the development of root rot of cereals. The use of clover in crop rotation can significantly reduce the incidence and progression of the disease and creates the preconditions for phyto-sanitary improvement of agro-ecosystems.
GRAIN YIELD AND QUALITY OF WINTER RYE DEPENDING ON THE USE OF GROWTH STIMULANTS
UDC: УДК 633.14+631.811.98
Authors: Al'bert Nikolaevich Kuzminykh ; Galina Ivanovna Pashkova ;
Obtaining high stable yields of agricultural crops is the main objective of farmers. Increasing from year to year in Russia the cost of fertilizers, plant protection products and energy is forcing rural producers to find new low cost ways of increasing the crop production. One of the most promising areas of modern technology of crop production is the use of biological agents and stimulators of plant growth. Stimulators of growth activate the immune system of plants, allows to “smooth out” the limiting factors of obtaining potential yield – increase resistance to drought or excess moisture, high or low ambient temperatures, as well as to speed up or slow down the maturation of plants, increase the number of ovaries, contribute to the redistribution of nutrients in economically important plant organs. Achievement which is rarely provided by traditional technologies. This study was conducted on the influence of growth stimulants Epin, Immunocytophit and Zircon on yield and grain quality of winter rye. The experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 in the level of crop rotation on the experimental field of the Mari state University. It was revealed that the treatment of crops of winter rye growth stimulants Epin and Zircon significantly increases grain yield. In this case the higher yield of winter rye was obtained in variant with the application of Epin – 2,93 t/ha. In the processing of crops Zircon grain yield was 3,8 % lower. Studies have also shown that the use of growth stimulants improves the product quality of winter rye. Thus, the protein content in grain, depending on the variant, it was 0,28–0,88 % more the control. Higher protein content was observed when using Epin was 12,61 %. The carbohydrate-amylase complex of grain of a winter rye of the studied variants corresponded the technological requirements.
WINTER MIXED AGROPHYTOCENOSES AS A WAY OF HIGH QUALITY GREEN FORAGE AND FEED GRAIN PRODUCTION
UDC: УДК 631.576.331
Authors: Jurij Alekseevich Lapshin ;
One of the factors of stabilization and successful forage production in Russia is to expand the species and varietal diversity of forage crops, in particular by increasing the acreage of winter vetch, as well as cultivation, creation of its involvement multicomponent mixtures (agrophytocenoses). The object of the research were single-species (rye, wheat, triticale) and mixed agrophytocenoses created on their basis with the participation of winter vetch being laid on two levels of mineral fertilizers: Р30К30 (basic application) + N34 (tillering in the spring) and Р30К30 (basic application) + N68 (tillering in the spring). Agrophytocenosis with winter vetch produced at both levels of mineral fertilizer the highest value of green mass 29,4–30,7 and 30,5–31,7 t/ha, and as a result the maximum productivity of: dry weight (6,6–8,0 t/ha), fodder units (3,74–4,67 thousand/ha), digestible protein (0,96–1,35 t/ha). Nitrate in green feed, regardless of the level of fertilizer, was below the maximum allowable concentrations. The amount of produced feed grain depended on the type agrophytocenosis and the level of mineral fertilizers. The highest grain productivity among single-species agrobiocenoses, on the background making N34P30K30, provided winter rye 4,10 t/ha. Against the background of making N68P30K30, winter triticale provided the greatest productivity – 4,75 t/ha. Mixed cereals agrophytocenoses show greater grain yield than their constituent components of the culture cultivated in a pure form. Higher productivity of mixed agrophytocenoses, compared with single-species, was the result of the efficient use of environmental resources by plants, less lodging and disease resistance. The highest amount of net income and the lower cost of a kilogram of feed grain produced on the background of mineral fertilizers N68P30K30. The ternary mixed cereal agrophytocenoses (ratio crops in the seed mixture – winter triticale (2–2,5) + winter wheat (2–2,5) + winter rye (1–2)) gave the largest amount of coarse grains (5,1–5,2 t/ha) with the lowest cost (from 5,5 to 6,0 rubles per kilogram) and the highest level of profitability – 86,3–93,5 %. Thus, the cultivation of winter mixed agrophytocenosis simulated with wiki, triticale, wheat and rye is an affordable way of producing high yields (26–31 t/ha) of green mass. Grain productivity in such agrophytocenoses reaches 4,8–5,5 t/ha, with the level of profitability of 86–93 %. Provision of feed unit obtained coarse grains digestible protein up to 96 grams, that is the value is close to the physiological norm.
FEATURES OF SOIL PATHOGENS PROGRESSION IN THE SPRING WHEAT AGROECOSYSTEM
UDC: УДК 631.95.024.592
Authors: Olga Gennadyevna Maryina-Chermnykh ;
The article presents the results of studies of the interaction of the spring wheat plant-microbe systems on the territory of the Republic of Mari El. In recent years, the cultivation of grain agric-cenoses led to the destabilization of the phytosanitary situation in the region. There is an increase in the growth of pathogenic micro-organisms due to envi-ronmental factors and disturbance of farming that reduce the productivity of soil and crops. These studies are aimed at identifying the relationship of various natural and anthropogenic factors on the phytotoxicity and the pathogenic potential of the soil, allowing reducing the load of negative technological impacts on the agroecosystem in field agroecosystems. The study examined the impact of agricultural practices and the value of pathogenic potential of plowing soil in terms of agricultural ecological system of spring wheat. These techniques improve the phytosanitary condition of the soil, and reduce the number of pathogenic microorganisms. The results showed that population growth and development of pathogenic microorganisms controls the ratio and activity of soil stimulating and inhibiting agents. The main environmental factors for the progression and defeat of spring wheat pathogens of the genus Fusarium culmorum and Bipolaris sorokiniana are the magnitude of their occurrence in the rhizosphere of the host plants, optimal conditions of temperature of 18–20 °C and the moisture content of 60–80 %, while the viability of the causative agents of root rot after wintering is reduced.
SULFUR BALANCE IN CROP ROTATIONS WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF VAPORS
UDC: УДК 631.811.7:631.582
Authors: Sergey Ivanovich Novoselov ; Anastasiya Vyacheslavovna Ivanova ; Nikolai Ivanovich Tolmachev ; Vasily Viktorovich Efremov ;
The article presents the results of research on the sulfur balance in crop rotations with different types of vapor in the conditions of the cespitose and podsolic soil of the East of the Non-Chernozem region. The studies were conducted on the basis of steady 4-factorial field experience, pledged at the experimental field of the Mari State University. It is found that the maximum sulfur content was in a dry weight of vetch and oats mixture and has made 0,30 %. The sulfur content in the grain of winter rye changed from 0,09 % to 0,11 %. The winter rye straw grown without the use of fertilizers in all crop rotations the sulfur content was the same and amounted to 0,05 %. After applying the fertilizers, the sulfur content in the straw of winter rye in the rotation with the net vapor and cropped fallow increased to 0,06 %, and in rotation with sideration vapor – to 0,07 %. The sulfur content in potato tubers has changed from 0,14 % to 0,16 %. The sulfur content in barley grain changed from 0,13 % to 0,15 %, in barley straw was varied from 0,12 % to 0,16 %. In the not fertilized soil of 4-fileld grain-row rotations, the sulfur deficiency ranged from 10,6 kg/ha in crop rotations with net vapor, and to 18,2 kg/ha – in crop rotations with cropped fallow. The use of settlement doses of fertilizers with growth of productivity increases removal of sulfur that leads to a negative balance. The balance of the sulfur was the most scarce in a crop rotation with cropped fallow at application of settlement doses of fertilizers and amounted to –27,4 kg/ha.
ECONOMIC AND BIOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE CHAMPION MARES OF THE RUSSIAN HEAVY DRAFT BREED
UDC: УДК 636.1.034
Authors: Andrey Vladimirovich Onegov ; Evgeny Dmitrievich Chirgin ;
The presence of draft horses, dairy champion mares describes as the effectiveness of breeding work and the culture of doing the industry as a whole. Mares of the Russian heavy draft with annual yield of over 5000 kg of milk play a vital role in ensuring the herds of replacement young animals with high genetic potential. Studies were conducted on the base of the tribal kumysny complex of the CJSC breeding factory “Semyonovsky” of the Republic of Mari El. Annual estimated milk yield of the champion mares ranged from 5000 kg to 7185 kg of milk. Mass fraction of fat and protein in the champion mares was slightly below the average for the sample. At the same time the amount of milk fat and milk protein were significantly more recordists than the average for the herd. The service period for increasing milk production increased almost three times. The coefficient of milkiness in the group of the champion mares was 856,50 kg, which is more than half exceeded the same indicator for all the mares company. The champion mares were characterized by a high energy growth during all periods of ontogenesis. The age of the first fruitful insemination they were 175 days less than the average for the sample.
ROLE OF HUMATES IN INCREASING THE GRAIN YIELD OF SPRING WHEAT
UDC: УДК 631.8:631.559:633.11«321»
Authors: Galina Ivanovna Pashkova ; Al'bert Nikolaevich Kuz'minyh ;
On food importance and the scale of production, the leading position among grain crops is wheat. In the total structure of sown areas of spring cereals wheat in the Republic of Mari El has a significant share. The average grain yield of spring wheat is less than 2 t/ha. Maintaining and increasing yield of spring wheat is not possible without the use of fertilizers. Along with mineral fertilizers are increasingly important fertilizers of natural origin, such as humates. Humates are unique natural compounds that play a fundamental role in the ecosystem “water – soil – plant”. Humates accelerate growth and development of plants, improve yields, shorten the ripening time and improve product quality and safety, improve the immunity of plants to adverse factors: diseases, drought, frost, replanting, pesticide and chemical stress, stimulate the growth of soil microflora, accelerate the process of composting, etc. The research have been conducted to study the effects of foliar feeding of crops of spring wheat with potassium humate and potassium. Sodium humate in powder form with a content of the active substance 80–85 % liquid concentrated 12 % aqueous solution of potassium humate were used for experiments. The following good practices were taken for treatment plants: humate sodium – 0,15 kg/ha, potassium humate – 0,8 l/hectares, at a flow rate of the working fluid 250 l/ha. Processing of crops conducted knapsack sprayers in the phase of tillering and earing. The use of humates sodium and potassium significantly increased the grain yield of spring wheat. The increase in control was 0,18–0,25 t/ha.
SOFT CHEESE MADE FROM A MIXTURE OF COW'S, GOAT'S AND MARE'S MILK
UDC: УДК 637.14
Authors: Alexander Ivanovich Perevozchikov; Elena Gennadyevna Shuvalova ; Tatyana Viktorovna Kabanova ;
Thermoacid cheese made from a mixture of cow's, goat's and mare's milk developed by cheese technology “Legend of Altai” in the laboratory of the department of technology of meat and dairy products of the Mari State University. Laboratory production was conducted in triplicate at five different variants of relations of milk of different species of animals. The relative yield of cheese is in the range of from 9,5 to 14 %. The lowest yield of cheese (9,5 %) was at version 2 (50 % cow's milk + 50 % of the mare's milk). Higher cheese yield of 13,4 % and 14 % was in embodiment 4 (cow's milk 50 % + 40 % goat's milk + kumiss yeast 10 %) and embodiment 5 (50 % cow's milk + 15 % horse milk + 25 % goat's milk + 10 % kumiss sourdough). This is due to two factors: 1) proteins of goat's milk are more fully precipitated when exposed to elevated temperatures; 2) increased capacity for retaining moisture bunch of variant formulations. Summing up, it should be noted that the best taste and smell were cheeses from the version 3 and version 5, as three kinds of milk are present in their formulation – cow’s, mare’s, goat’s. Also, analyzing the cheese from a mixture of cow's, mare's and goat's milk by precipitation of proteins, it can be concluded that variants of the formulation, of the mixture, which consisted of cow's, mare's and goat’s milk, had a greater output of cheese, increased mass fraction of fat, and were more nutritious.
PREVENTION OF PIGS WITH HEPATOSIS USING KOVERTAL
UDC: УДК 619:615.1+577.15/17
Authors: Sergey Yuryevich Smolentsev ;
The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of Catozal and Kovertal combined with succinic acid for the prevention of pigs with hepatosis. Scientific-production test was performed on the basis of the pig-breeding complex of LLC “Zarechny” of the Republic of Tatarstan. 3 groups of Landrace breed sows were formed on the principle of analogues, 5 animals live weight of 160–180 kg in each group. The first group of sows injected intramuscularly 10 % solution of Katozal in a dose of 5 ml/head for 5 consecutive days 30 days prior to farrowing. The second group was injected intramuscularly Kovertal at a dose of 3ml/head three times a week for three consecutive weeks. Besides, the sows of the first and second groups received daily with wet mash succinic acid at a dose of 20 mg/kg of live mass of 10 consecutive days. The third group served as a control and was kept on a usual diet. The experiment lasted 60 days. The experiment studied the effect of drugs on the clinical condition, the safety and productivity of sows received from these pigs, the natural resistance of sows and their posterity. Studies have shown that the mass of piglets at birth was higher in the first and second experimental groups compared with the control, respectively, 0,14 and 0,17 kg. Phagocytic and lysozyme activity of blood serum, the immunoglobulin content, phagocytic index and phagocytic number were also significantly higher in piglets obtained from sows experienced compared to the control group. Application of Katozal, Kovertal and succinic acid in the diets of sows from the experimental groups allowed for high safety of pigs by 6,0 and 5,9 %. This results from the fact that preparations improve a physiological condition of sows and their posterity.
CHANGE OF MILK YIELD AND MILK COMPOSITION OF MARES DURING THE DAY
UDC: УДК 636.1.034
Authors: Maxim Stanislavovich Ukhov ; Andrey Vladimirovich Onegov ; Evgeny Dmitrievich Chirgin ;
During the day mares have different and varying mass proportion of protein and fat. The variability of fat content in the milk of mares during the day reaches 60%. In order to explain the nature of this phenomenon a series of experiments were conducted, including milking mares continuously throughout the day. The authors explain the differences in the variability of fat and protein in the milk of mares during the day by various ways of secretion from secretory cells of the udder of the components of milk. The protein secreted using merokrine type of secretion, and secretion of fat is carried out mainly by apocrine type. Due to the significant increase of milk yield in the early morning, secretion of synthesized fat slows down, which causes a reduction of fat content in the milk of mares. Secretion of accumulated fat increases with decreasing milk yield, increasing the fat content in milk. It is found that milk yield of mares on day 16,39 % higher than at night. It is also established that during the day the mass fraction of protein 5,24 % higher than the mass fraction of protein at night. The fat content in the milk of mares during the day to 12,24 % higher than the fat content in the milk of these mares at night. The correlation between daily milk yield and fat content amounted to 0,22, between daily milk yield and mass fraction of protein +0,44, between a mass fraction of fat and mass fraction of protein +0,47.
COMPLEX ASSESSMENT OF BULLS-MANUFACTURERS IN JSC “MARIYSKOYE” FOR BREEDING
UDC: УДК 636.22.28.082
Authors: Ludmila Valerevna Holodova ; Klavdia Sergeevna Novoselova ;
The article considers the possibility of carrying out an assessment of bulls-manufacturers on a range of traits. Studies on the breeding work were carried out on the basis of JSC "Mariyskoye". The purpose of the study is a comprehensive assessment of manufacturers and the development of practical proposals to further use of these bulls bioproduction. The assessment of bulls-manufacturers on a range of features includes evaluating bulls by origin, reproductive qualities, the quality of the offspring. It allows you to more accurately determine the breeding value of manufacturers, to determine their genetic potential, as well as the degree of its implementation. Based on a comprehensive assessment of the bulls it is possible to give more precise guidance on the use of bioproduction of these manufacturers in enterprises of agro-industrial complex of Mari El. Research has shown that all the bulls, which are under assessment, are thoroughbred and upscale, they were received by their highly productive ancestors. Productivity of maternal ancestors was exceeded the breed standard. The genetic potential of bulls is quite diverse and quite high. The same research revealed 8 bulls whose offspring worsened indicators of milk yield, including two bulls, which bioproducts didn’t meet the requirements of GOST. Consequently, the bioproduction of these producers cannot be used for insemination of breeding stock.
PROBLEMS OF FORMATION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION BUDGET 2016 UNDER MACROECONOMIC INSTABILITY
UDC: УДК 336.144:332.13
Authors: Evgenia Alexandrovna Vinogradova ; Tatyana Alexandrovna Samborskaya ;
The article defines the place and role of budget planning in terms of the need to exit the macroeconomic instability of the state of the economy. Budget planning is seen as a key regulator of economic management, which reflects the expected value of various aspects of financial and economic activities of economic entities. In view of the tightening of the economic situation in the country, more and more important for the public good is the implementation (within the chosen at the state level economic policy), the role of the state budget planning. One of the most important mechanisms that allow state authorities to perform the functions of social and economic regulation, acts as the mechanism of the financial system, the most significant of which is the lever of the federal budget of the state. Successful implementation of the statutory functions of the organs of state planning and control requires a sufficient volume of funding sources, and therefore need to concentrate on the revenue side of the budget of the money supply created in our country at all levels of the economy. Due to the concentration of data in the federal budget resources and their continued use and replenishment, formed a mechanism of financial relations of public authorities with taxpayers and recipients of budget amounts for financial support targeted use of cost. These relationships build in compliance with the financial policy of the developed concept of the state, planned (and assuming its further implementation) government. At present, the direction of fiscal policy of our country are always at the center of public attention, which is explained as it takes its place in the toolbox of social and economic policy, and painful of acute criticism, which it is constantly exposed to from all sides – from both public authorities and social forces, and from various political parties, outside experts, international organizations and the press, which is understandable and natural, as fiscal policy, as no other area of social and economic policy of the state as fully reveals the rigid collision of interests of various groups and stakeholder society.
FLORAL BUSINESS IN RUSSIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES
UDC: УДК 339.1:635.9
Authors: Faina Ivanovna Gryazina ; Oksana Anatol'evna Danilova ; Angelina Jur'evna Guljaeva ;
Flower business relates to the retail sector and it is the last link in the chain from the producer to the buyer. Now it is going through hard times, and it is directly related to the global crisis in the economy. Always first in such cases, demand on the flowers, which act as a kind of barometer of public welfare, falls. If the pre-crisis 2008, Germany bought at the Dutch auctions to 30 % of all the flowers in the amount of 1514 billion euros, Russian – just 3 % – to 152 million euros. This is more than all the Swiss spend on flowers – 125 euros per year, per capita, the Dutch themselves – 86, Germans - 84, and the Russians - 6 (along with the Romanians). Netherlands is one of the main suppliers of flowers to the world market. Sales of products in the Netherlands is carried out by 15 auctions. It is sold 1 million tulips and 3 million roses per hour. Hence flowers are sent around the world, including in Russia. Recently, however, there is a tendency delivery of flowers directly from producing countries, bypassing the Netherlands. The largest Russian importers of cut flowers are of “Spartan” and LLC “Prestige Consulting”. Thus, we can make a logical conclusion that the possibility of development of the Russian flower market are large enough.
CURRENT VALUE BUYING POWER OF MONEY
UDC: УДК 339.133.3
Authors: Andrey Sergeyevich Dougan ;
The article considers the value of money and their importance in the modern world. It analyzes the current purchasing power of money in the whole world, as well as the example of Russia. Particular attention is paid to the establishment of the monetary unit is equivalent to the modern market relations. Economy allocates a lot of the functions of money, but still remains the main purchasing. It gives the ability to define the essence of the value of certain goods and services provided by the markets. Effect of cash flow, which operate in the world, are numerous, so the consideration of traffic flows of money as equivalent is the economic regulator of the processes around the world. Touched upon the formation, the new world currency, which means that the formation and development of the states. Currency allows countries with a dominant position in the issue of money to hold leading positions in their economic development. That in turn leads to the full development of society. The emergence of new dominant currency in the world will enable the development of new countries. Promotion and development of a new currency, which would become the clear leader in the calculations in the world, is one of the objects of the modern review of the monetary equivalents. The purchasing power of money, at this stage of development of social relations dictated by the exchange rate. Thus, the purpose of the article is consideration of the purchasing power of money, its influencing factors and its formation in the new stage of development of society, that in turn will contribute to the development of economic relations between the two countries, and subsequently suffer stabilization of the level of development.
KEY ISSUES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HANDICRAFT CLUSTER IN RUSSIA
UDC: УДК 332.143
Authors: Anna Viktorovna Lisevich ;
The paper outlines key problems of development of handicraft cluster Russia, which are not reflected in government programs, employment programs and social development. There are issues of legislative, economic and marketing sense. The craft industry is poorly developed system of domestic support, the so-called trade union link. At present, in the form of a non-profit partner of the state in favor of the Russian Federation Chamber of Crafts and its regional offices. Regional Chamber of Crafts is the only institution that must monitor and supervise handicraft cluster in the region. At the regional level there are about 43 craft chambers of the Russian Federation. Also represented in the scientific interpretation of the concepts of “artisan cluster”, “craft activities”. Formulated and mapped the structure of the regional handicraft cluster. At the initial stage of problem solving handicraft cluster is necessary to form the legal framework, the register of craft trades and improve marketing channels.
HE NEED FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED BUSINESSES
UDC: УДК 330
Authors: Evgenij Ivanovich Tsaregorodtsev ; Elena Aleksandrovna Malovа;
Development of small and medium-sized enterprises and the possibility of private entrepreneurial initiatives are essential for the successful development of the country. The positive dynamics of the growth of small and medium-sized enterprises leads to the creation of new jobs. It is easier to manage small or medium-sized enterprises in conditions of unstable national currency exchange rate. Through contributions and taxes the federal budget and the budget of the Russian Federation regions replenish. Tracing the dynamics of small and medium-sized enterprises development in the Volga Federal District, it will be possible to identify a tendency for further development of this sector of the economy.
MAIN DIRECTIONS OF BUDGETARY POLICY FOR 2016 AND THE PLANNING PERIOD OF 2017–2018 COST OPTIMIZATION BUDGET
UDC: УДК 336.143
Authors: Ilnar Munirovich Nurmuhametov ; Enzhe Ruzaleva Akhmetzyanova ;
The article deals with the problems and ways to optimize the costs of the budget. The dynamics of budgetary performance indicates that the federal budget, especially in recent years, was heavily overloaded with expenses related to the economic function of the state. The consequence of this process was a significant budget deficit, which is managed, especially after the financial crisis in Russia has become much more difficult. By solving the problem of budget deficit is currently largely dependent switching to sustainable economic development, the problem of ensuring expanded reproduction and full provision by the state of its social and economic functions. Budget funding for all social sectors in full is not enough. To solve this problem, you must move from universal social protection of the population to ensure that targeted social neediest is also necessary to increase the effectiveness of social expenditures by industry by reducing non-production costs; reduce the network of public social institutions financed on the basis of the estimated expenditure of the order, but at the same time provide paid social services; to carry out regular monitoring of the efficiency and effectiveness of social expenditures.
MODERN PARADIGM OF MANAGEMENT OF KRASNODAR BALNEOLOGY RESORT TERRITORIES DEVELOPMENTON THE BASIS OF THE CONCEPT OF INNOVATION DYNAMIC MODEL
UDC: УДК 338.24.01
Authors: Rena Rinatovana Timirgaleeva ; Igor' Jur'evich Grishin ;
The article substantiates the need for the development of balneology resorts in Krasnodar Region in the direction of improving their competitiveness based on the concept of innovation dynamic model. Dynamic model of the concept of innovation serves as a basis of innovation activity of Krasnodar balneology resort territories. This model means development, implementation and maintenance of an innovative mechanism of competitive development. The implementation of this concept is a challenge at the system level, which requires a search for possible ways to overcome regional (spatial) development disparities, irrational territorial organization, low quality of services, improving the competitiveness and the level of cooperation of tourist-recreational complex with industrial-production activities carried out in the region, using the potential of cross-border cooperation with neighboring regions. The introduction in the enterprises Krasnodar balneology resort territories with the considered knowledge management system could significantly improve the management of personnel, prevent the “loss” of knowledge, that will help to optimize the effectiveness of the departments and the organization as a whole, increase the level of competitiveness. The study provided methodological tools to solve the problems rationally. Meeting the challenge of development and implementation of methodological tools of the innovation activity development mechanism of Krasnodar balneology resort territories based on the concept of innovation dynamic model contributes to the sustainable growth of the level and quality of life of the population of these territories based on balanced economic and social innovation system, that guarantees environmental safety, the dynamic development of the economy and the implementation of the strategic interests of the region in the Black Sea region. In addition, the new system will implement a gradual improvement of information-analytical systems, and decision support systems.This will facilitate the implementation of an intensive model of economic growth, development of the potential of interregional cooperation. Cooperation with other regions will be transformed into a key factor dynamizing economic growth of Krasnodar region. This will lead to the development of Krasnodar region as a national and international center for balneology; leveled regional disparities and ensure environmental safety.